treatment, lime-soda softening, fluoridation, and disinfection. A general introduction to
water treatment processes and their applications is provided in par. 2.2.42.
More detailed information on water treatment is provided in Section 5 of
Water Distribution. A distribution system is a network of pipes, including
necessary valves, hydrants, and storage reservoirs, that carry potable water to the
point of use. Even military installations that purchase potable water usually install and
maintain their own distribution and storage systems. A general introduction to water
distribution system operation and maintenance is provided in par. 2.2.42.
More detailed information on water distribution is provided in Section 7 of
Pumping. Pumping and gravity flow are the two essential methods used
to move water from place to place. Pumps and pumping facilities vary depending on
their specific use. General-use categories include:
Low-lift pump stations
High-lift (or high-service) pump stations
Booster pump stations
Well Pumps. Well pumps are used to lift water from wells and may
discharge directly to a distribution system, to storage, or to a treatment plant. For more
detailed information on water well pumps, see pars. 4.5.2 and 4.5.3.
Low-Lift Pump Stations. The usual application for low-lift pump stations is
pumping water from a surface supply to the intake of a non-pressure treatment plant.
Low-lift pumps may also be used for transferring water from one unit process to another
within a treatment facility. For more detailed information on low-lift pump stations, see
High-Service Pump Stations. High-service pumps transfer potable water
from non-pressurized sources such as storage reservoirs directly to the distribution
system. In general, system pressures for high-service pumps should fall between
50 and 75 pounds per square inch (psi) (3.5 to 5 kilograms per square centimeter
[kg/sq cm]) for residential service. System pressure should not drop below 20 psi (1.4