1 October 1997
(3) Construction. The tipping floor must be a finished and sealed, reinforced concrete slab
designed to carry the truck loads. The floor must have a grate-covered drain to catch water from
the waste, water used to wash down the floor, and rainwater that might collect near the truck doors.
d. Pit and Crane. If the incinerator plant is especially constrained for space, it may be
necessary to use a pit-and-crane system for waste storage and feeding. A loose (uncompacted)
bulk density of 100-150 lbs/yd3 should be used to determine the required volume of the pit.
(l) Where cranes are used for feed, incinerator plant operation is dependent upon the crane
reliability which can operate continuously. Accordingly, the crane should be rated for MHI CMAA 70
Class F (Continuous Severe Service). The best type of bucket for handling garbage is the "orange
peel" grapple. In addition, hose bibs must be provided both to wash down the pit periodically, and
to put out occasional fires in the pit.
(2) Space and Service. The pit will occupy considerably less floor space in the plant than
the tipping floor due to its depth below grade. Waste hauling trucks need to pull only part way into
the incinerator building in order to be out of the weather when discharging their loads into a pit.
e. Waste Processing. If the decision has been made to expand the present materials
recovery and recycle program, provisions must be made in the design for the waste processing
equipment required prior to the incineration. Typically, this will require some form of handpicking
operation, preferably using conveyors and certain equipment for removing metals. If possible, the
MRF and incinerator should share a common site.
(1) MRF Tipping Floor. In a totally integrated system, the MRF tipping floor needs to provide
for the acceptance and preprocessing of waste. All material deemed not recyclable, but acceptable
for burning, would be sent to the incinerator facility for storage prior to burning.
(2) MRF Discharge. If an MRF is integrated into the system, the processed waste can be
transported via a conveyor to the pit or the incinerator tipping floor, where it would be mixed with the
other burnable waste that bypassed the MRF.
f. Waste Bypass.
(1) Normal Operation. Some types of wastes will not be suitable for incineration. Other
wastes will not be suitable for processing at the MRF. Therefore, provisions must be made for direct
bypass of these wastes or for dumpsters to receive the discards separated from the waste to be
disposed by other methods.
(2) Contingency Methods. The design must accommodate and plan for contingencies
caused by equipment failures leading to unscheduled outages. Accommodation of these types of
occurrences will require either a landfill for temporary disposal or some type of temporary storage
capability until the facilities can be brought back up to full capacity.
(a) Loss of Incinerator Capacity. Provisions have to be made for landfilling large
amounts of raw (otherwise combustible) waste in the event of a severe mechanical failure that
reduces incineration capability to handle the flow beyond the 3- to 5-day storage capacity of the
tipping floor or pit.