1 October 1997
INCINERATOR PLANT DESIGN
7-1. STANDARD BUILDING TYPE. Pre-engineered metal buildings, typical of small modular
plants, can be supplied with a wide variety of sidings, fascia, and other trim for aesthetic purposes.
The incineration equipment should draw the combustion air from inside the plant. This helps keep
the building under negative pressure to minimize release of odors. Roof fans are needed to insure
adequate air circulation, and maintain the slightly negative pressure inside the building.
7-2. WASTE RECEIVING AND PRETREATMENT
a. Scales. The design of any incinerator plant must include truck scales. The scale is needed
to establish the weight of incoming solid waste, outgoing residue, salvaged materials, and to
monitor the performance of the facility. State and local regulatory agencies may require this
information be made available to ensure the plant is not processing more waste than it is licensed
for and is not overloading the incinerators.
b. Receiving Accommodations. Trucks must have adequate room to turn and maneuver after
going over the scales. This is especially important for back-in arrangements. There should be
several acres of free area around the waste receiving area for maneuvering and parking of trucks
and for storage of drop-off containers. At least the receiving area, if not the entire plant site, must
be surrounded by a wire-link fence to prevent paper and other debris from blowing out of the
c. Tipping Floor.
(1) Typical Layout. The normal configuration for a small modular incinerator facility building
is for the trucks to unload their waste onto a tipping floor. If the waste is not processed at an MRF,
a front loader will be used to separate out any material that should not go into the incinerators, push
some of the waste into the incinerator charging hoppers, and pile-up the rest in storage areas. The
front loader used to service the incinerators must be large enough to deliver an adequate amount of
waste to the feed hoppers, but have a bucket narrow enough to directly access the feed hopper
opening. Irrespective of whether an MRF is used, the tipping floor area at the incinerator should
have some provision for reducing the size of large, burnable material that has been delivered.
Typically this type of material includes scrap lumber, timber, logs, tree stumps, pallets, and wooden
boxes. A shear shredder or a tub-grinder with ample capacity to handle timbers, tree trunks, and
large pallets may be required.
(2) Waste Storage Area. For the storage of 3-5 days feed stock, approximately 130 ft of
tipping floor area should be provided for each ton-per-day incinerator capacity. This storage
capacity is required to insure continuous operation during those periods when waste deliveries are
not being made. The actual space allocation will be influenced by the type of floor arrangement
selected, the amount of truck and front loader traffic, and how high the front loader can pile the
waste in storage (which is also affected by the height of the concrete retaining wall against which
the waste is to be piled).