1 September 1999
6-1. INTRODUCTION. Design guidance for reinforced masonry structures is provided. Plain
(unreinforced) masonry design and design using "empirical" methods are generally not
6-2. BASIS FOR DESIGN. Reinforced masonry will be designed by allowable stress design
(ASD) methods in accordance with TI 809-06, "Masonry Structural Design for Buildings. Loads
will be in accordance with Chapter 1, Paragraph 7. Load combinations will be in accordance
with Chapter 1, Paragraph 8. Special design and detailing requirements for masonry
structures subjected to earthquake ground motions are provided in FEMA 302, "NEHRP
Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and in TI 809-04,
"Seismic Design for Buildings". For buildings in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F, shear
keys at the base of masonry walls may be necessary. Designers must be aware of, and
comply with all seismic design and detailing requirements.
6-3. SERVICEABILITY. Detailing of masonry structures to prevent efflorescence, and to
prevent cracking due to shrinkage and temperature movements, should be in accordance with
recommendations in TI 809-06. Large expanses of roof deck with supporting systems rigidly
attached to masonry walls, pilasters, or columns can result in cracking due to thermal changes
that take place during construction. Designers should therefore include provisions in the
design to accommodate thermal movement both during and after construction. Control joints
and expansion joints are used to control cracking due to shrinkage and thermal movement.
The joints should permit movement but have sufficient strength to resist required loads. Joints
should be weather tight when located in exterior walls. Joint location and detailing
requirements are provided in TI 809-06.
6-4. LOAD PATH INTEGRITY. Information on the design and detailing of connections
between shear walls (vertical resisting elements) and floor and roof diaphragms (horizontal
resisting elements) are provided in TI 809-04, TI 809-06, and FEMA 302. The design of
headed anchor bolts and bent-bar anchors embedded in masonry, and used to connect
diaphragms and structural members to masonry, will be in accordance with FEMA 302,
Paragraph 11.3.12, "Headed and Bent-Bar Anchor Bolts".
6-5. SPECIAL INSPECTIONS.
Periodic special inspection during the preparation of mortar, the laying of masonry
Periodic inspection of vertical, horizontal, and bond beam corner reinforcement.
Continuous special inspection during the welding of reinforcement, grouting,