Water Rights . Water rights for surface water often
differ from those for groundwater. They are generally regulated
at the state level, except that interstate rights are regulated
by the Federal Government. Secure legal advice for the
Watershed Protection . Uses and activities in surface
water supply watersheds may impact raw water quality and require
higher levels of treatment. Recreational activities should only
be allowed when adequate treatment is utilized. The protection
of the watershed should be in accordance with all current U.S.
EPA regulations regarding watershed protection.
Surface Water Collection Works
Intakes . Refer to Water Treatment Plant Design ,
Chapter 4, "Intakes," AWWA, and Recommended Standards for Water
Works, Health Education Services .
The selection should be based on the
a) Drainage areas must be adequate to provide the
b) Topography at the dam should provide ample storage
capacity at minimum cost, and a good site for a spillway to pass
the flood flow.
c) The geology at the dam should provide suitable
materials for dam construction, safe foundation for the dam and
the spillway, and tightness against excessive seepage.
d) Selection should avoid the following sites:
densely inhabited areas, heavily wooded areas, large swampy
areas, areas requiring major highway relocation, areas fed by
silt -laden streams, and areas with many prior water rights.