or 3/16-inch (5mm) round corrosion-resisting metal
caused by temperature, shrinkage, creep, and
ties capable of resisting, in tension or compression,
A horizontal expansion joint in the
the wind load or two times the weight of veneer,
veneer is recommend at each floor level to prevent
whichever governs. Maximum spacing of ties is 16
spalling. Vertical control joints should be provided
inches (406mm), and a tie must be provided for each
in the veneer at each control joint in the backup.
2 square feet (0.2m2) of wall area. Adjustable ties
are not permitted in Seismic Design Categories D, E,
Connections of Exterior Wall Panels.
They may be used in Seismic Design
Precast, non-bearing, non-shear wall panels or other
Categories A, B, and C if the basic wind speed is less
elements that are attached to or enclose the exterior
than 100 mph (160 kmph). If adjustable ties are
will be designed and detailed to accommodate
used, they will be the double pintle-eye type, with a
movements of the structure resulting from lateral
minimum wire size of 3/16 inch (5mm); play within
forces or temperature changes. The concrete panels
the pintle will be limited to 1/16 inch (1.6mm), and
or other elements will be supported by means of cast-
the maximum vertical eccentricity will not exceed
1/2 inch (12.7mm). The maximum space between
Connections and panel joints will be designed to
the veneer and the backing will not exceed 3 inches
allow for the relative movement between stories, and
(75mm), unless spot mortar bedding is provided to
will be designed for the forces specified in Section
stiffen the ties.
A noncombustible, noncorrosive
6.1.6 of FEMA 302.
Connections will have
horizontal structural framing will be provided for
sufficient ductility and rotation capacity so as to
vertical support of the veneer.
preclude fracture of the concrete or brittle failures at
vertical distance between horizontal supports will
or near welds. Inserts in concrete shall be attached
not exceed 25 feet (7.6m) above the adjacent ground,
to or hooked around reinforcing steel or otherwise
and 12 feet (3.7m) maximum spacing above the 25-
terminated so as to effectively transfer forces to the
foot (7.6m) height.
reinforcing steel. Connections to permit movement
in the plane of the panel for story drift may be
Adhered veneer is masonry veneer
properly designed sliding connections using slotted
attached to the backing with minimum 3/8-inch
or oversized holes, or may be connections that
(9.5mm) to maximum 3/4 inch (19mm)mortar or
permit movement by bending of steel components
with approved thin-set latex Portland cement mortar.
without failure. Typical design forces are shown in
The bond of the mortar to the supporting element
will be capable of withstanding a shear stress of 50
Suspended Ceiling Systems.
psi (345 kPa). Maximum thickness of the veneer
design is required for structures conforming to
will be limited to 1 inch (25mm). Since adhered
Seismic Design Categories C, D, E, and F.
veneer is supported through adhesion to the mortar
Earthquake damage to suspended ceiling systems
applied over a backup, consideration will be given
can be limited by proper support and detailing.
for differential movement of supports, including that