30 June 2001
8. SOIL STABILIZATION. Soils used in pavements may be stabilized or modified through the addition
of chemicals or bitumens. A stabilized soil is one which has improved load-carrying and durability
characteristics through the addition of admixtures. The principal benefits of stabilization include a
reduction in pavement thickness, provision of a construction platform, decreased swell potential, and
reduction of the susceptibility to pumping as well as the susceptibility to strength loss due to moisture.
Lime, cement, and fly ash, or any combination of these, and bitumen are the commonly used additives
for soil stabilization. A modified soil is one which has improved construction characteristics through the
use of additives. However, the additives do not improve the strength and durability of the soil sufficiently
to qualify as a stabilized soil with a subsequent reduction in thickness. Criteria for the design of
stabilized soils is contained in TM 5-822-14/AFMAN 32-1019. Additional discussion of soil stabilization
is found in TM 5-818-1/AFM 88-3, Chapter 7.
9. DESIGN ANALYSIS. The outlines in Appendixes B and C will be used to prepare design analyses
for all projects under design. All pertinent items and computational details will be included showing how
design results were obtained.
10. WAIVERS TO CRITERIA. Each DoD Service component is responsible for setting administrative
procedures necessary to process and grant formal waivers. Waivers to the criteria contained in this
manual will be processed in accordance with Appendix D.
11. COMPUTER PROGRAMS. Computer programs have been developed for the design of
pavements. The computer programs may be obtained electronically from the following:
a. Word Wide Web (WWW) address: http://pcase.com.
b. FTP Anonymous Site: pavement.wes.army.mil.
Disks may also be obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Transportation Systems Center,
215 North 17th Street, Omeha, NE 68102-4978.