feet] long and have less than 10 percent of their operations that involve aircraft in the Class B
category. However, this is not intended to limit the number of C-130 and C-17 operations conducted
on any Class A airfield.
3.3.2. Class B Runways. Class B runways are primarily intended for high performance and large
heavy aircraft, as shown in Table 3.1.
3.3.3. Rotary-Wing and V-STOL Aircraft. Runways for Rotary-wing and Vertical Take-Off and
Landing (V-STOL) (V-22) aircraft are not addressed in this chapter. Design standards and
considerations for rotary-wing aircraft runways and landing lanes are found in Chapter 4 of this
manual. Information on the design standards and considerations for the V-STOL aircraft may be
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3.3.4. Short Fields and Training Assault Landing Zones. Short Fields and Training Assault Landing
Zones are special use fields. Design criteria are found in Air Force Engineering Technical Letter
(ETL) 98-5, C-130 and C-17 Contingency and Training Airfield Criteria. When fully developed and
approved, criteria for training airfields will be provided in Chapter 7 of this manual.
3.4. Runway Systems. As discussed in Chapter 2, an airfield normally has only one runway.
3.4.1. Single Runway. A single runway is the least flexible and lowest capacity system. The
capacity of a single runway system will vary from approximately 40 to 50 operations per hour under
IFR conditions, up to 75 operations per hour under VFR conditions.
3.4.2. Parallel Runways. Parallel runways are the most commonly used system for increased
capacity. In some cases, parallel runways may be staggered with the runway ends offset from each
other and with terminal or service facilities located between the runways. When parallel runways
are separated by less than the distance shown in Item 15 of Table 3.2, the second runway will
increase capacity at the airfield under VFR conditions, but due to the close distance, capacity at the
airfield will not be increased under IFR conditions.
3.4.3. Crosswind Runways. Crosswind runways may be either the open-V or the intersecting type
of runway. The crosswind system is adaptable to a wider variety of wind conditions than the parallel
system. When winds are calm, both runways may be used simultaneously. An open-V system has a
greater capacity than the intersecting system.
3.5. Runway Orientation/Wind Data. Runway orientation is the key to a safe, efficient, and usable
aviation facility. Orientation is based on an analysis of wind data, terrain, local development,
operational procedures and other pertinent data. Procedures for analysis of wind data to determine
runway orientation are further discussed in attachment 5.
NOTE: Metric units apply to new airfield construction, and where practical, to modifications to existing
airfields and heliports, as discussed in paragraph 1.4.4.