(1) enter Figure D1 with the angle of batter, positive or

negative, and obtain a value of the ratio; (2) compute

groundline deflection as if the pile were vertical;

(3) multiply the deflection found in (2) by the ratio found

inves-tigated the effect of batter on the behavior of

in (1); (4) vary the strength of the soil until the

laterally loaded piles. Kubo used model tests in sands

deflection found in (3) is obtained; and (5) use the

and full-scale field experiments to obtain his results.

modified strength found in (4) for the further

Awoshika and Reese tested 2-inch diameter piles in sand.

computations of the behavior of the pile that is placed on

The value of the constant showing the increase or

a batter. The method outlined is obviously approximate

decrease in soil resistance as a function of the angle of

and should be used with caution. If the project is large,

batter may be obtained from the line in Figure D1. The

it could be desirable to perform a field test on a pile

"ratio of soil resistance" was obtained by comparing the

installed with a batter.

groundline deflection for a battered pile with that of a

vertical pile and is, of course, based purely on

experiment.

1

References are listed in Appendix A.

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