TM 5-852-9/AFR 88-19, Vol. IX
and meals increases costs in remote areas, therefore, optimum use of work time assumes an even greater
importance. Summer months of almost continuous daylight contrast to winter months of almost complete
darkness. That variation in daylight and darkness becomes more extreme as one goes farther north.
Consequently, long summer work hours are appropriate to take advantage of the daylight and minimize idle
b. Materials. Generally, maximum factory prefabrication is most economical. Such savings can be lost,
however, because of higher handling and shipping costs. Possible damage and breakage en route could
influence a decision to utilize onsite construction. In many areas, common construction materials are
unavailable. Sand, gravel, cement, or water for concrete may have to be transported long distances. Suitable
timber products, especially piling, may not be locally available, as timber quality and size in the arctic is
usually less than that of other areas. Transporting costs for large or heavy construction equipment can
become a major portion of the construction cost in remote areas. Eliminating the need for such equipment,
or combining separate buildings to utilize special equipment more fully, will reduce overall cost. Delays in
shipping equipment can result in prolonged construction time, expensive emergency air freight costs, or
unsatisfactory job site improvisation. In coastal areas, prefabricated construction should be considered more
seriously as the materials or buildings can be shipped or barged and unloaded on a beach near or adjacent to
the site. A short construction season sometimes dictates prefabricated construction. During the design stage,
it must be kept in mind that damage to, or loss of, an important building component can postpone the
completion date until after the next shipping season. This is especially true if prefabricated components
cannot be airlifted to the site or duplicated onsite. If such problems occur, project construction costs may be
increased and the facility completion jeopardized, particularly if existing buildings were disposed of in the
c. Maintenance. Since it is desirable to reduce high maintenance costs, the designer must consider
whether a high initial cost will be outweighed by decreased maintenance costs, resulting in a lower total cost.
Maintenance costs are high due to high local wages, scarce skilled local labor, necessity for providing room
and board at remote locations, difficulties, costs, and risks in shipping materials and equipment, decreased
efficiency of men and machines due to environmental conditions, and the length and cost of communications
and re-supply channels.
1-6. Scheduling. Work scheduling must utilize the least expensive transportation methods. During ice-free
periods, the most economical means is usually by water, on rivers and northern seas. Materials will not arrive
until ice breakup at the site, however, unless icebreakers or ice-strengthened vessels are available. Planning
to utilize full barge loads will reduce costs, since barge charges are fixed by the rental cost of the barge and
towing vehicle. Scheduling all work at a particular site under one contract can cut transportation costs.
During the winter, transportation over frozen land, rivers, lakes, and marshes where there are no roads or
rivers may be more economical than air transportation. Because of short construction seasons, outside work
must be accomplished quickly. Scheduling work so that the structure can be closed in during mild weather,
with interior work done during severe weather, will expedite completion, reduce costs, and eliminate many
problems. The types of material and construction method used will be impacted by the length of the
construction season. For example, cold weather may limit concrete work, while prefabricated-type
construction could still proceed. Because of the short construction season and soil conditions, the first year
is often used to establish a camp, clear the site, move required materials into the area, construct foundations,
and do whatever prefabrication is possible; the second season is then used for actual building construction.
For additional information on seasonal work scheduling, see TM 5-852-4/AFM 88-19, chapter 4. The
optimum time for shipping construction materials and supplies coincides with the optimum time for
construction. This factor may require expensive air delivery of construction materials used early in the
project, or a longer completion time when cost is the most important consideration.