TM 5-852-9/AFR 88-19, Vol. IX
1-4. Environmental factors and considerations. Climatic, hydrologic, topographic, and geographic factors
influence overall site selection (see TM 5-852-2/AFR 88-19, Vol. 2) and are also important considerations
in establishing the configuration of individual structures. Since the environment desired within buildings is
usually drastically different from ambient arctic and subarctic conditions, severe stresses are placed on
building components. Rapid deterioration and costly maintenance are inevitable unless these stresses are
carefully considered when selecting construction materials. Personnel must also be considered when designing
for the environment. Poor visibility caused by whiteouts, fog or darkness, coupled with high winds and cold
temperatures make it essential to minimize personnel confrontations with the environment. Additional space
may be necessary to house functions that can be accomplished outdoors in temperate zones. Enclosed
walkways, as shown in figure 1-3, may be necessary if structures are spread out.
a. Climatic conditions. Because of the range and severity of arctic and subarctic conditions, knowledge
of individual site conditions is particularly important to develop effective methods and procedures for facility
design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Temperatures at the Tin City Air Force site in Alaska, for
example, range from -44 to + 71E F, with a design wind speed of 110 miles per hour (mph) and design
ground snow load of 97 pounds per square foot (psf). Some important climatic factors and ways those factors
need to be considered are given in table 1-1.
(1) Problems caused by snow drifting. Placing utility distribution systems in or below walkways
facilitates repair. Walkways, unfortunately, tend to box in a camp and aggravate snow drifting problems.
Blowing snow is an important consideration because large drifts may rapidly develop on and around
structures, and construction materials left on the surface can be buried by a single storm. Dry windblown