15 March 2001
4.10. Filler Material. Filler material for the thickened-edge and doweled-type expansion joint
should be a nonextruding type. The type and thickness of a filler material will depend upon the
particular case. Usually a preformed material of 3/4-inch (20-millimeter) thickness will be
adequate, but in some instances a greater thickness may be required. Filler material for slip
joints should be a heavy coating of bituminous material not less than 1/4 inch (6 millimeters) in
thickness when the joints match. A normal nonextruding type material not less than 1/4 inch
(6 millimeters) in thickness should be used when joints do not match.
4.11. Dowels. Expansion joints where dowels are used require that the dowels be securely and
accurately placed. The nonextruding filler material should be drilled or punched to the exact
diameter and at the location of the dowels. It should be furnished in lengths equal to the width of
the placement. When more than one length is used in a joint, the abutting ends of the filler
should be held in alignment. It should be held firmly in place and extend downward completely to
the bottom of the slab, and the top edge should be held about 1/2 inch (13 millimeters) below the
surface of the pavement. The top edge of the filler material should be protected while the
concrete is being placed. The important functions of dowels or any other load-transfer device in
concrete pavements are:
4.11.1. Help maintain the alignment of adjoining slabs.
4.11.2. Limit or reduce stresses resulting from loads on the pavement. Different sizes of dowels
should be specified for different thicknesses of pavements. (Reference paragraph 10.4.).
4.12. Concrete Placement. As well as many other factors, the concrete mixture selection
depends on the curing time to reach required strength before the repair area is opened to traffic.
If it is acceptable for the concrete to cure for several days (similar to new construction), regular
concrete mixtures can be used. If an earlier opening time (1 to 3 days) is needed, a high
early-strength PCC (usually type III cement) can be used, or the cement content should be