TM 5-809-6/AFM 88-3, Chap. 6
accordance with the CERC Shore Protection Manual. Site
wave studies will be performed to determine the effect of
a. Highway. Design of highway bridges will be in ac-
wave action on structures.
cordance with the AASHTO Standard Specifications for
b. Piers and wharves.
Highway Bridges and American Institute of Steel Con-
(1) Main structure. Design of main pier or wharf
struction (AISC) Highway Structures Design Handbook.
structures will consider conditions of exposure and loadings
Loading for military vehicles will be in accordance with TM
applicable to the location and service for which the structure
5-312 and FM 5-36.
is intended. A discussion of appropriate design loads can be
b. Railroad. Design of railroad bridges will be in ac-
found in MIL-HDBK-1025/1. Design loads will include
cordance with the American Railway Engineering As-
considerations of vertical live load, berthing forces, mooring
sociation (AREA) Manual for Railway Engineering.
loads, wave loadings, ice forces, as well as seismic and other
c. Pedestrian. Design of pedestrian bridges will consider
forces as appropriate.
a minimum live load of 85 psf and possible loads by
(2) Dolphins. Dolphins will be designed as described
maintenance vehicles as set forth in the AASHTO standard
in the MIL-HDBK-1025 series and will be provided where
specifications. Such loads will be considered in conjunction
required to resist ship berthing, mooring, and/or turning
with wind, snow, and other loads to which the structure may
forces. Guidance regarding the determination of berthing,
mooring, and turning forces is also provided in the MIL-
d. Other. Bridges for other specialized applications, such
as pipeline supports, transit systems, etc., will meet
(3) Fendering. Fender systems will be designed to
requirements unique to such applications for the service
protect the pier or wharf structure, as well as the berthing
involved and the materials used. For example, bridges
vessel itself, from forces which can result from the impact of
constructed of aluminum will be designed in accordance with
the vessel against the structure. Design of fender systems
the Aluminum Association Specifications for Aluminum
will be in accordance with MIL-HDBK-1025/1 for vessel
Structures using allowable stresses for bridges and similar
sizes appropriate for the structure and for the recommended
type structures. For additional guidelines for concrete bridge
approach velocity and angle.
structures, see ACI 343R.
c. Offshore platforms. Offshore platforms will be
designed considering requirements and loadings set forth in
the MIL-HDBK-1025 series and the CERC Shore Protection
Analysis and design for tunneling and tunnel structures will
Manual and will be designed in conformance with applicable
be based on the information and references provided in
portions of the American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 2A.
NAVFAC DM-7.3 and American Society of Civil Engineers
For additional design guidance, see ACI 357R, 357.1R, and
(ASCE) 402. Structural strength and stability will be
considered, as well as the need for ventilation and other
d. Offshore POL unloading facilities. Design of
offshore POL unloading systems will be in accordance with
NAVFAC DM-22. Wave studies will be made for the design
3-3. Docks and harbors
of the mooring system and platforms. Submarine pipelines
a. Design. Design of docks and harbors will, in general,
will be properly designed and anchored against undersea
be in accordance with the MIL-HDBK- 1025 series which
current and underwater tow.
addresses waterfront operational facilities. Additional
guidance may also be found in the NAVFAC DM-26 series
3-4. Pipelines and supports
and the Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC) Shore
Design requirements for pipelines and their supports will
Protection Manual, Volumes I through m. Specific
depend on the nature of the material being transported and
requirements applicable to particular types of dock and
the materials used for construction. Among the standards
harbor structures will be established from references spe-
which should be consulted when undertaking design of
cially suited to those types of structures such as MIL-
pipeline systems are the following:
HDBK-1025/3 and MIL-HDBK-1025/5. Particular
a. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
consideration will be given to corrosion-resistant design in
seawater environments. For guidance in this regard, refer to
b. American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 1104
MIL-HDBK-1025/6. Wave forces on vertical walls, piles,
and Recommended Practices 1102 and 1110.
and other exposed structures will be determined in