15 September 1999
Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures
Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction
Guide for the Use of High-Range Water-Reducing Admixtures
(Superplasticizers) in Concrete
Use of Fly Ash in Concrete
Standard Practice for the Use of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete
Designing Floor Slabs on Grade by Ringo and Anderson.
BACKGROUND. RRMS foundations have been used extensively for MILCON projects
since the 1970's. They were designed to resist structural distortion and resultant structural and
architectural distress. RRMS resists foundation movement potential at expansive soil sites.
Other type foundation systems experienced structural damage. The problem was most severe
for drilled piers and shallow footing foundations. These were designed to industry standards for
projects at moderate to highly expansive sites. Similar conditions were experienced with both
Corps and private sector projects. Similar performance problems occurred where foundation
design did not adequately address deformation potential. Damage due to the inability of
foundation and structural systems to resist foundation movement was severe. Damage
included distortion and cracking of concrete frames, wall cracking, pier and footing heave,
separation of piers from columns, tensile failure at piers, wrenching and breakage of stem walls,
grade beams and slabs, severed utility connections, massive architectural distress, and extreme
distortion of floor slabs. Some structures were unserviceable. Although there was no structural
collapse, distress was so severe that the term "failure" could be applied in some cases.
The RRMS system, taken in modified form from the housing industry, was adapted to MILCON-
class structures. Evolution of design and construction criteria continued through the 1980's
within CESWD. Several hundred million dollars of MILCON projects were placed on RRMS
foundations yearly in the Fort Worth District during this period. CESWD's experience indicates
the RRMS structural foundation to be cost effective and constructible solution for projects of
various types, performance requirements, and site conditions.