30 November 1998
relative to each other and detailed to ensure the ductile response. In this guidance, this is
accomplished by ensuring that the diagonal straps yield and respond plastically through significant
displacement, without risk of damage to brittle connections or column buckling.
Seismic design guidance is provided on three levels:
Tabular data for prototype shear panels in terms of the maximum story shear and maximum
and minimum gravity load. These terms are defined in Chapter 3 and the shear panel
configurations and data are provided in Appendix E.
Detailed guidance for shear loads using shear panels with diagonal straps as primary lateral
load resisting element. This guidance is provided in Chapter 3, with background guidance
taken from other sources in Appendix C and an example problem illustrating the guidance in
Appendix D. The spreadsheet, http://owww.cecer.army.mil/techreports/wilcfsxl.post.pdf
program used in the example problem is available as a design tool for shear panel design.
A test procedure and the acceptance criteria for other shear panel configurations is provided in
6. USES OF COLD-FORMED STEEL.
a. General. Cold-formed steel systems have been used in industry and within the government
for many decades. The primary areas of usage include: standing seam roof systems, doors, roof and
floor joists, decking and floor systems, ventilation and ceiling systems, interior wall partitions and
exterior fascia, metal buildings, lighting poles, guardrail, and corrugated steel pipe. These TI provide
guidance necessary for designers to develop loadbearing steel systems.
b. Steel Framing Systems. These systems can be used in: wall, floor, and roof trusses of low
rise offices, single family homes, and multi-family housing structures. Cold-formed systems should be
galvanized for the local environmental conditions, and be pre-punched for routing utility services
through walls. A rubber or plastic grommet must be provided in each pre-punched hole that utilities are
passing through to prevent corrosion between dissimilar metals in the wall stud cavity.
7. COLD-FORMED SUPPLIERS. Cold-formed manufacturers perform the following services for the
commercial customers: provide framing details, develop design information on the structural capacity
of their members, help specify the job's materials, and deliver precut materials. Government designers
should specify the design properties of each structural member; studs, track, heads, jambs, jack studs,
etc. These properties include member depth, width and design thickness for each section.
a. Designers. Cold-formed steel framing involves the use of engineered products outlined in an
overall engineered system. Cold-formed steel framing is ideally suited for structural applications such
as curtain wall framing, load-bearing wall framing, floor framing, rigid frames, trusses, and roof rafter
(1) Selecting Member Strength. Designers are responsible for specifying which products are
to be used as well as which standards the products must meet. The products must meet
all of the design requirements which normal engineering practice requires. Axial load
capacity of compression members, flexure, torsion, shear, and web crippling in beams,
and combined stresses in columns, etc. must be examined.
Designers are to specify all materials by nominal uncoated thickness, effective
section properties, and member loads. Loads should include moment and shear
diagrams, and axial load with eccentricity.
All connections (member-to-member and member-to-structure) are to be examined
carefully taking into account all relevant physical strengths and properties as well as
proper transfer of all loads to the supporting structure.