TM 5-809-3/NAVFAC DM-2.9/AFM 88-3, Chap. 3
d. Cautionary notes for designers and detailers. Avoid connection and joint details which would result
in stress concentrations that might result in spalling or splitting of face shells at contact surfaces. To avoid
stress concentrations, liberal chamfers, adequate reinforcement, and bearing pads should be used. Avoid
direct bearing of heavy concentrated loads on face shells of concrete masonry units. Avoid welding to any
embedded metal items which might cause spalling of the adjacent masonry, in particular where the expansion
of the heated metal is restrained by masonry. All bolts and dowels which are embedded in masonry will be
grouted solidly in place with not less than one inch of grout between the bolt or dowel and the masonry.
Expansion anchors should not be used in the connection between major structural elements, including the
connection of the horizontal elements (diaphragms) to the vertical elements (shear walls). At tops of piers
and columns, vertical bolts will be set inside the horizontal ties. When steel beams are connected to masonry,
the connection will allow for the thermal expansion and contraction of the beam. The construction case,
where a wide range of temperatures can be expected if the beams are directly exposed to the heat of the sun,
will be considered when determining the temperature differential.