Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.
Most masonry and frame structures destroyed with
their foundations. Some well-built wooden structures
and bridges destroyed. Serious damage to dams,
dikes, embankments. Large Landslides. Water
thrown on banks of canals, rivers, lakes, etc. Sand
and mud shifted horizontally on beaches and flat land.
Rails bent slightly.
XI. Rails bent greatly. Undergournd pipelines completely
out of service.
XII Damage nearly total. Large rock masses displaced. Lines
of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown into the air.
(Reprinted from "Elementary Seismology", C.F. Richter,
1958, with permission from W.H. Freeman and Company.)