Utility or Service Interface: The connection of the
Aspect Ratio: Ratio of height to width for vertical
building' mechanical and electrical distribution systems to
diaphragms, and width of depth for horizontal
the utility or service company' distribution system.
Veneers: Facings or ornamentation of brick, concrete,
Balloon Framing: Continuous stud framing from sill
stone, tile, or similar materials attached to a backing.
to roof, with intervening floor joists nailed to studs
and supported by a let-in ribbon. (See platform
Wall: A component that has a slope of 60 degrees or
greater with the horizontal plane used to enclose or divide
Cripple Wall: Short wall between foundation and
first floor framing.
Bearing Wall: An exterior or interior wall providing
Cripple Studs: Short studs between header and top
support for vertical loads.
plate at opening in wall framing or studs between
Cripple Wall: A framed stud wall, less than 8 feet
base sill and sill of opening.
(2400mm) in height, extending from the top of the
Decking: Solid sawn lumber or glued laminated
foundation to the underside of the lowest floor
framing. Cripple walls occur in both engineered
decking, nominally two to four inches thick and four
structures and conventional construction.
inches and wider. Decking may be tongue-and-groove
or connected at longitudinal joints with nails or metal
Light-Framed Wall: A wall with wood or steel
Dimensional Lumber: Lumber from nominal two
Light-Framed Wood Shear Wall: A wall
through four inches thick and nominal two or more
constructed with wood studs and sheathed with
Dressed Size: The dimensions of lumber after
surfacing with a planing machine. Usually 1/2 to 3/4
inch (13 to 19mm) less than nominal size.
Nonbearing Wall: An exterior or interior wall that
Edge Distance: The distance from the edge of the
does not provide support for vertical loads, other than
its own weight or as permitted by the building code
member to the center of the nearest fastener. When a
administered by the regulatory agency.
member is loaded perpendicular to the grain, the
loaded edge shall be defined as the edge in the
Nonstructural Wall: All walls other then bearing
direction toward which the fastener is acting.
walls or shear walls.
Gypsum Wallboard or Drywall: An interior wall
Shear Wall (Vertical Diaphragm): A wall designed
surface sheathing material sometimes considered for
resisting lateral forces.
to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall
(sometimes referred to as a vertical diaphragm).
Hold-Down: Hardware used to anchor the vertical
Wall System, Bearing: A structural system with bearing
chord forces to the foundation or framing of the
structure in order to resist overturning of the wall.
walls providing support for all or major portions of the
vertical loads. Shear walls or braced frames provide
Moisture Content: The weight of the water in wood
expressed as a percentage of the weight of the over-
Wind-Restraint System: The collection of structural
elements that provides restraint of the seismic-isolated
Nominal Size: The approximate rough-sawn
structure for wind loads. The wind-restraint system may be
either an integral part of isolator units or a separate device.
commercial size by which lumber products are known
and sold in the market. Actual rough-sawn sizes vary
Wood and Light Metal Framing:
from the nominal. Reference to standards or grade
rules is required to determine nominal to actual
finished size relationships, which have changed over