23 JULY 2003
2-220.127.116.11 Sludge Application to Dedicated Land. The objective of sludge disposal
from domestic sources on non-agricultural land is to employ the land as a treatment
system. The soil will bind metals and soil microorganisms, sunlight, and oxidation will
destroy organic matter. Frequently, the dedicated land disposal site has a cover crop
that is not in any food chain to reduce the potential for runoff or leaching of the
pollutants to surface or ground water.
Sludge that is listed as a hazardous waste under 40 CFR 261 or that is
derived from a listed hazardous waste could not be disposed in this manner unless the
sludge was delisted in accordance with 40 CFR 260. Requirements for land disposal of
sludge that may be a hazardous waste should be coordinated with Federal and state
LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND PERMITS. Federal and state legal require-
ments must be addressed if the plate and frame filter press is selected as the method to
dewater the sludge. Applicable Federal and state laws and regulations generally
address treatment and disposal of sludge from the filter press. Federal regulations are
authorized under several statutes. State regulations are generally similar to Federal
regulatory requirements, but may vary among the states. Although other laws may apply
to the use of a plate and frame filter press, the most applicable Federal laws are the
Clean Water Act (CWA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980
(CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of
1986 (SARA). A summary of these laws and their implementing regulations to the plate
and frame filter press operations are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA was passed by Congress in 1972 and
was amended by the CWA of 1977. Section 405 of the CWA required the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations for the use and disposal
of sewage sludge. These criteria are included in regulations co-promulgated under
Subtitle D of RCRA (Solid Waste Disposal facilities) and Section 405(d) of the CWA and
are found in 40 CFR 257 and 40 CFR 503.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA and the regula-
tions that implement it are applicable to the plate and frame filter press if the filter press
is used for dewatering a hazardous waste as defined under Subtitle C of RCRA and 40
CFR 261. RCRA is also applicable if the residual cake from the filter press is a hazard-
ous waste as defined under these laws and regulations.
Federal regulations that address hazardous wastes are located in 40 CFR
260 through 40 CFR 270. The requirements in these regulations should be coordinated
with Federal and state regulatory agencies.
In addition to these regulations addressing requirements for the sludge
generated from hazardous waste, the regulations also address exclusions to permitting