OPERATIONS AND CONTINGENCY PLANS/TRAINING
Inspecting periodically for floral and faunal activities
(such as animal burrows) that could cause leaks through
a. Purpose. The designer of hazardous waste
earthen dikes, levees or embankments.
land disposal/land treatment facilities must have an
(1) Liquid wastes may be removed from an
understanding of their basic operations.
impoundment by a variety of methods, including (but not
understanding is fundamental to the development of
limited to) decanting, pumping and settling, solar drying,
design plans that take into account day-to-day
operations, required equipment, health and safety
methods are presented in SW-873.
provisions, and operator needs. A summary of general
(2) Typical equipment used for closing an
operations for landfills, surface impoundments and land
treatment facilities is presented below. For a brief
Centrifugal pump or hydraulic pipeline dredge
discussion of procedures for injection wells and waste
to remove impounded liquids.
piles, see paragraph 5-5 and 5-6, respectively.
Vacuum truck to pump slurried sediment from
b. Landfill operations. Typical operations at a
hazardous waste landfill include the following activities:
Rotary cutter to extract hardened sediments.
Unloading wastes onto the active lift by forklift
Dragline or front-end loader to excavate
or front-end loader.
Segregating wastes in cells or subcells to
d. Land treatment operations. Typical land
prevent mixing of incompatible wastes.
treatment operations include:
Covering wastes with soil to prevent wind
Applying liquid wastes (less than 8 percent
solids) by either spraying the waste on the land
Grading cover soil to facilitate collecting any
with sprinklers or by using flood or furrow
Placing cover soil on areas of the landfill that
Spreading semiliquid sludges (8 to 15 percent
have been brought to final grade.
solids) on the land or injecting them 4 to 8 inches
(1) To minimize infiltration of rainfall during very
below the soil surface.
wet conditions, tarps may be used to cover the active
Applying low-moisture solids (> 15 percent
area of the landfill. In areas of very high rainfall, wastes
solids) to the surface and later incorporating into
are often containerized or stored until the rainfall season
(1) Regardless of which waste application
(2) Equipment for landfill operations is used for
method is used, the most important objectives are
handling wastes and cover material, spill and fire control,
uniform application of wastes, and use of application
and decontamination. Typical equipment includes:
rates that are tailored to the assimilative capacity of the
Forklift and front-end loader to unload and
place solid waste and containers.
(2) Equipment used for land treatment varies,
Dozens and self-loading scrapers to spread
depending on application technique selected. Typically,
and compact cover material.
Road graders and water pickup and vacuum
Piping and a pump to transport wastes to the
trucks to provide support functions such as
point of discharge (for surface irrigation by
maintenance of site roads.
Fire control, spill control and decontamination
Truck or trailer-mounted tank if wastes are to
be applied by gravity flow or through a sprayer or
c. Surface impoundment operations. During
the time that liquid wastes are impounded, the following
Vacuum truck with flotation tires and rear
inspection activities are required:
sprayer or manifold for surface spreading of
Monitoring to ensure that liquids do not rise into
the freeboard (prevention of overtopping).
Moldboard plow, disk or rotary tiller for
Monitoring leak detection system.
incorporating waste into the soil.
Inspecting containment berms for signs of
Truck or tractor with two or more chisels if
leakage or erosion.
wastes are to be injected into the subsurface.
Periodic sampling of the impounded wastes for
selected chemical parameters.