capacitors or similar non-storage containers which
contain free liquids may not be landfilled. Acutely
remain after closure.
(b) Storage-Wastes are held for a
hazardous wastes such as carcinogens must be
solidified prior to disposal, regardless of their quantities.
temporary period and removed at closure.
b. Disposal constraints. Landfills should be
(c) Treatment-Wastes are modified
sited in a hydrogeologic setting that provides maximum
physically or chemically to render them less toxic,
isolation of the waste from ground-water.
mobile, or otherwise less hazardous.
achieved by vertical separation of wastes from the
(3) A land treatment unit is a facility or part
uppermost ground-water, and low permeability of the
of a facility at which hazardous waste is applied onto or
subsurface material providing the hydraulic separation.
incorporated into the soil surface. As provided in 40
In addition, the landfill must be located above the 100-
CFR 264, subpart M, a waste must not be land treated
year flood level and not interfere with major surface
unless the hazardous constituents in the waste can be
degraded, transformed or immobilized in the treatment
(1) Ideally, the soils in the area should be
zone (ranging up to 5 feet in depth). Units designed
suitable for daily cover as well as final cover. In cold
primarily for the purpose of dewatering without treatment
regions where frost penetration is significant (3 to 6 feet),
are considered surface impoundments rather than land
the cover material should be stockpiled and maintained
treatment units. Land treatment units are unlike other
in as dry a condition as possible to facilitate wintertime
land disposal units in that they are not designed and
operated to minimize all releases to ground-water;
(2) Location of landfills in karst terrain (or
rather, they are open systems that allow liquids to move
similar geologic formations) and in seismic zones 3 and
out of the unit.
4 (as defined in TM 5-809-10) should be avoided
(4) Underground injection is the subsurface
whenever possible. However, if landfills are sited in such
emplacement of fluids through a bored, drilled, or driven
areas, the following precautions should be taken:
well, or through a dug well, wherein the depth of the dug
well is greater than the largest surface dimension.
investigation must be performed to ensure that the
Septic tanks or cesspools used to dispose of hazardous
facility is not located on or in the near vicinity of sink
waste have been specifically included in the RCRA
holes or caverns and that the soil and rock in the area
definition of injection well.
are suitable for location of this type of facility.
(5) A waste pile is any non-containerized
(b) After the final site selection has
accumulation of solid, non-flowing hazardous waste that
been completed, USACE (DAEN-ECE-G) shall be
is used for treatment or storage; however, waste piles
notified of proposed location and geological conditions.
may not be used to intentionally dispose of wastes. If the
This notification shall be made a minimum of 30 days
owner or operator of a waste pile wishes to dispose of
before design begins.
wastes, he must apply for a landfill permit and manage
c. Procedures. Disposal by landfilling involves
the pile as a landfill. Piles are generally small, and many
placement of wastes in a secure containment system
are in buildings or maintained outside on concrete or
that consists of double liners, a leak detection system, a
other pads. They are frequently used to accumulate
leachate collection system and final cover. Wastes
waste before shipment, treatment, or disposal and are
delivered to the landfill are unloaded by forklift or front-
typically composed of a single dry material.
end loaders and placed in the active waste lift.
Hazardous materials shall be segregated in cells or
subcells according to physical and chemical
a. Suitable wastes. The primary restriction on
characteristics to prevent mixing of incompatible wastes.
landfilling of hazardous wastes is the elimination of liquid
Following their placement, the hazardous wastes are
disposal. Bulk liquids or sludges with leachable liquids
covered with sufficient soil to prevent wind dispersal.
must not be landfilled at DA hazardous waste facilities;
Successive lifts are placed and the cover soil graded so
disposal of such wastes will be permitted only in surface
impoundments. RCRA regulations permit disposal of
small quantities of liquids in small containers in an
overpack drum (lab pack), provided that the latter
as to direct any run off toward a temporary sump at the
contains sufficient absorbent material to absorb all of the
lower segment of the base liner. For operations during
liquid contents of the inside containers. The inside
extremely wet conditions, tarps may be used to cover the
containers must be non-leaking and compatible with the
active area to minimize infiltration of rainfall. In high
contained waste. The overpack drum must be an open
rainfall regions, semi-permanent roof/rainfall protection
head DOT-specification metal shipping container of no
can be installed over the entire cell using either rigid or
more than 110-gallon capacity. Batteries,