25 May 2005
VMC: A runway that is equipped only for daytime VFR operations.
Night VMC: A runway that is equipped for nighttime VFR operations.
Non-Precision Approach: A runway that has a non-precision IFR
procedure for either a circling or straight-in approach. An airfield with non-precision
landing capability has operational electronic NAVAIDS to guide the aircraft to the airfield
for a VFR landing. A non-precision approach allows landings during lower minimums
than for VFR operations but higher minimums than precision approaches.
Precision Approach: A runway that is equipped for instrument
approaches during IMC. Electronic NAVAIDS can be placed in operations that, in
conjunction with aircraft on-board equipment, allow runway approaches in the different
categories of meteorologic conditions shown in Table 3-5. A precision approach
generally requires an ILS or a Precision Approach Radar (PAR).
Precision Approach Category
Category I Air Force
approach with PAR
Category III a
Category III b
Category III c
Visual NAVAIDS. Visual NAVAIDS consist of lighting, guidance signs,
markers, and pavement marking. The principal component of visual NAVAIDS is the
airfield lighting system, which is designed to aid pilots during takeoff, landing, and taxi
operations. The locations and colors of airfield lighting, as well as pavement markings,
are uniform at all civil and military airports to allow pilots to quickly interpret what they
see. The design of airfield lighting must provide runway, runway approach, taxi and
parking guidance, and obstruction warning lights.
Visual NAVAID Components. The type and quantity of visual NAVAIDS
in a project can vary from zero to a comprehensive visual NAVAID facility. Visual
NAVAID components are listed in paragraphs 3-18.104.22.168 through 3-22.214.171.124.