Figure 2-3. Visual and nonprecision marking.
(2) Precision instrument runway, Category
Marking practices. The color of markings used
on runways is white, while that used on taxiways or for
(3) Precision instrument runway, Category
marking deceptive, closed, or hazardous areas is yellow.
On light-colored runway pavements, the contrast of the
(4) Nonprecision instrument runway.
markings can be increased by outlining with a black
(5) Visual runway.
border at least 6 inches in width. In some locations the
b. Runway designation marking. Runways are
use of striated marking, consisting of painted stripes 4
identified by the whole number nearest one-tenth (1/10)
inches to 6 inches wide with equal width of unpainted
the magnetic azimuth of the runway centerline. The
area, has been effective in reducing frost heave of the
magnetic azimuth of the runway centerline is measured
pavement. This method also increases the coefficient of
clockwise from the magnetic north when viewed from the
friction over the marking area. However, since this
direction of approach. For example, where the magnetic
method results in reduced marking conspicuity, frequent
azimuth is 183 degrees, the runway designation marking
maintenance is required to provide an acceptable
would be 18; and for a magnetic azimuth of 87 degrees,
Due to the reduced conspicuity,
the runway designation marking would be 9. For a
striated marking is not used on Category II or III runways.
magnetic azimuth ending in the number "5," such as 185
degrees, the runway designation marking can be either
18 or 19. Numbers and supplemental letters; where
a. Marking precedence.
required for parallel runways, are shown in figure 2-4.
intersect, the markings on the runway of the higher
The supplemental letter is placed between the
precedence continue through the intersection, while the
designation numbers and the threshold or threshold
markings of the runway of the lower precedence are
marking as shown in figure 2-2. Single digits are not
interrupted except that the runway threshold marking,
preceded by a zero. The size and spacing of the
designation marking, and touchdown zone markings are
numbers and letters are reduced only when necessary
relocated along the lower precedence runway to avoid
due to space limitations on narrow runways and should
the intersection area. For intersection of runways of the
be no closer than 2 feet from the runway edge (or
same precedence order, the preferred runway (lowest
runway edge stripes if used). For parallel runways, the
approach minimums or most often used) is considered to
supplemental letter is determined as follows, in the order
be of a higher precedence order. For marking purposes,
shown from left to right when viewed from the direction of
the order precedence, in descending order, is as follows:
(1) Precision instrument runway, Category
(1) For two parallel runways: "L", "R".
(2) For three parallel runways: "L",