Landfill gas recovery systems are similar to extraction type landfill
gases rather than migration control. Recovery systems are designed to
recover as much landfill gas as practical from the landfill while extract
at a rate that does not introduce air into the landfill through the surfa
or sideslopes. Air kills the methane producing anaerobic bacteria and co
inadvertently begin a fire in the fill. Typical landfill gas generation
recovery rates for a landfill range from 0.04 to 0.15 cubic feet per poun
(0.003 to 0.009 cubic meters per kilogram) per year.
Extracted landfill gas can be used as recovered with some minor
processing (e.g., moisture dropout) for use as a medium-Btu (e.g., 500 Bt
per cubic foot [18 620 kilojoule per cubic meter]) boiler fuel or for
electricity. Recovered landfill gas can also be upgraded to pipeline
quality gas (i.e., 1,000 Btu per cubic foot [37 245 kilojoule per cubic
meter]) by various methods for introduction into the natural gas
distribution system. The upgrading of recovered landfill gas to pipeline
quality gas is very capital-intensive and would not generally be practica
for construction of a Navy installation.
220.127.116.11 Odors. Odors originate from the waste as it is delivered; from
decomposing waste in place at the landfill; and from leachate seeps, pond
and treatment systems. Odors from refuse can usually be mitigated by
applying cover rapidly and ensuring that the cover is maintained intact.
18.104.22.168 Noise. Noise sources at landfills include operating equipment a
haul vehicles. Generally, the noise is similar to that generated by any
heavy construction activity, and is confined to the site and the streets
used to bring solid waste to the site. To minimize the effect, every
effort should be made to route traffic through the least populated areas.
Further, the site can be isolated so that the noise cannot carry to nearb
neighborhoods. The use of earthen berms and trees as noise barriers can
very effective. On the site, noise protection for employees will be
governed by existing Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) standard,
CFR 1910.95, Occupational Noise Exposure.
Air Pollution. The two sources of air pollution (other than fro
dust) are from the equipment working on the site and from vehicl
refuse to the site. Proper control of equipment emissions shoul
22.214.171.124 Fires. Fires in landfills can result from the unknowing disposa
of a hot load, sparks from vehicles, or deliberate ignition. The latter
prohibited at a well-run sanitary landfill. Hot loads can be minimized b
proper policing of incoming trucks; these loads should be deposited away
from the working face and immediately extinguished by water or covering w
soil. Adequate daily soil cover and cover between cells are helpful in
preventing and controlling fires by providing natural barriers.