6.1.7 Baling. A baler consists of a hydraulic ram that compresses solid
waste into a confined space. The resulting bales can be tied either
manually or automatically. Balers may be either batch fed or continuousl
fed, the later being more suitable for high production rates. Baling
facilitates the handling, transport, and storage of refuse or of
individually separated components of refuse. In some areas of the countr
solid waste is baled and landfilled. Paper is typically compressed to a
bulk density of 500 to 800 pounds per cubic yard (300 to 500 kilograms pe
cubic meter) as a consequence of baling. Baled tin can stock reaches
densities exceeding 2500 pounds per cubic yard (1500 kilograms per cubic
Solid Waste Conversion Technologies.
6.2.1. Incineration/Energy Recovery. Solid waste may be burned in an
incinerator to reduce the volume of waste requiring landfill disposal.
Incineration of waste may be accompanied by energy recovery typically in
form of hot water, steam, electric power, or a combination thereof.
Waterwall incinerators and two-chambered modular incinerators are the
prevalent technologies used for recovering heat energy from combustion of
solid waste. For cases where the quantity of solid waste is less than 20
tons (180 metric tons) per day, factory-built, modular incineration syste
appear to be the preferred choice of technology at the present time. In
case of water-wall incinerators, water is circulated through pipes in the
wall of the combustion chamber to produce saturated (or superheated) stea
or hot water. Superheated steam may be used for the production of
electrical energy, industrial process heat, space heating, air conditioni
and hotel service dockside. Generally, in the case of modular incinerato
only saturated steam or hot water is produced. The thermal efficiency of
heat recovery incinerators (HRI) with capacities less than 200 tons (180
metric tons) per day typically is in the range of 50 to 70 percent.
The feedstock for a solid waste incineration system may be unprocesse
or processed solid waste. The choice is primarily a matter of solid wast
management objectives, degree of desired secondary material recovery,
In terms of land requirements, a 100 ton (90 metric ton) per day
incineration plant operating 24 hours per day (with no preprocessing of t
waste) Would occupy about 1/2 acre (2000 square meters), about half of wh
would be used for tipping and storage of refuse. An illustration of a
modular beat recovery incineration system is shown in Figure 11.
The Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory (NCEL), Port Hueneme, Californ
has reviewed existing heat recovery incinerators (HRIS). In the matter o
selecting and designing HRIS, reference is made to a NCEL publication on
HRIS: CR84.014, Recommended Design of 50 TPD Facility. Also see heat
recovery application guidance in MIL-HDBK-1003/2, Incinerators.