25 May 2005
Necessity for internal boiler water treatment.
Deaeration and oxygen scavenging.
Maintenance of concentration levels.
Causes and effects of deposits, scale, and corrosion.
Chemical treatment programs, such as phosphate, polymers, sulfite,
hydrazine, and others.
Where to feed chemicals.
Effects of carryover and silica on steam purity.
Prevailing ASME and internal standards.
Corrosion in condensate returns from oxides of iron and copper.
Effects of filming and neutralizing amines and hydrazine.
Boiler layup procedures.
Cooling Systems Treatment. Training for treatment of cooling systems
feedwater should address:
Once-through cooling water systems.
Recirculating cooling water systems.
Need for and means of maintaining clean condensers.
Chemicals and methods of treatment.
Blowdown. Blowdown is used in both cooling and steam systems to
regulate COC of solids through dilution with makeup water. Training associated with
blowdown procedures should include:
Surface versus bottom.