3-1.4.3

foaming, priming, and silica carryover (see paragraph 3-2.8). Carryover is a process

that results in impure steam quality. Dissolved solids contained in the carryover material

can contribute to corrosion and deposition problems.

3-1.5

boiler calculations are performed and the results applied correctly. Boiler calculations

are the means for providing information used to determine optimal blowdown rates and

to assess condensate return. The greatest efficiency of boiler operations can be

achieved by optimizing the COC by adjusting the amount of blowdown to give the

proper volume of water. Efficient boiler operations recover and return as much

condensate as possible. The material balance or mass balance of an operating boiler

system can be calculated from the results of water tests and the known (measured)

value of a single boiler operational parameter such as steam production, makeup water

usage, feedwater usage, or blowdown. Steam table data can be used with mass

balance information to calculate energy input and energy output for the boiler system.

Chemical feed rates can be used with mass balance information to develop an

estimation tool for the annual consumption of water treatment chemicals. Familiarity

with these calculation procedures and their application to boiler system operations

assessment is required of any base or facility engineer or section supervisor. This

knowledge is also useful for boiler operators. Examples of boiler calculations are

provided in paragraphs 3-1.5.3 through 3-1.6.3.

3-1.5.1

refers to the number of times the minerals in the feedwater have been concentrated in

the boiler by its operation. As boiler water is evaporated and steam is produced,

minerals that were dissolved in the boiler water remain behind, increasing the mineral

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