25 May 2005
MAKEUP WATER FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER SYSTEMS. Industrial
water systems at most United States Government installations use fresh water and,
often, potable water. Makeup water, often referred to as "makeup," is fresh water that is
added to an industrial water system to replace water lost by blowdown, evaporation,
wind drift, leaks, steam, humidification, or withdrawal from these systems.
Sources of Makeup Water. The usual source of makeup water is the
installation's potable water supply. This source is water that has been conditioned and is
usually of a very uniform quality from day to day. Other sources of makeup water could
include groundwater obtained from shallow or deep wells, or surface water from
streams or holding ponds. These sources are not treated to the extent that the potable
water source is treated. Still another source is reuse water (i.e., water that is "used" and
reclaimed and not rated as potable).
. The term "groundwater" refers
to subsurface water, such
as that obtained from wells or artesian springs. This water contains a high amount of
dissolved minerals and is often consistent in quality, although it may vary with the
seasons of the year and the conditions of the aquifer from which the water is drawn.
Treating groundwater can improve its quality.
Surface Water. The term "surface water" refers to water found in rivers or
lakes. Surface water may vary in quality with the seasons of the year or local weather
conditions, with higher turbidity and SS possible during rainy weather. Treating these
waters prior to use can make the quality more uniform, depending on the type of
Reuse Water. Reuse water is any water that has been previously used.
Reuse water helps conserve the precious limited supply of fresh water since less fresh
water is needed for an intended use. Treated municipal wastewater is a type of reuse
water and can be a source of makeup. In addition to the natural impurities of a fresh
water source, municipal wastewater usually contains ammonia, phosphate, and other
byproducts of the waste treatment process. These impurities are factors that affect the
usability of reuse water. Other examples of reuse water include cooling tower and boiler
blowdown, softener rinse water, plating water effluent, condensate, and reverse
osmosis (RO) reject water. Examine each type and source of reuse water and establish
its suitability prior to use.
Source Selection Factors to Consider. Industrial water systems will
operate more effectively if the source for water is both reliable and (ideally) uniform in
quality. A backup water source should be available for use in case of need.