25 May 2005
INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL WATER TREATMENT
PURPOSE AND SCOPE. This UFC provides an overview of industrial
water treatment operations and management. As used in this UFC, the term "industrial
water" refers to the water used in military power generation, heating, air conditioning,
refrigeration, cooling, processing, and all other equipment and systems that require
water for operation. Industrial water is not the same as potable water. Industrial water is
never consumed or used under situations that require a high degree of sanitation.
Industrial water requires water preparation or chemical treatment, or both, to avoid the
problems described in paragraph 1-1.2. Water preparation and chemical treatment
requirements are described in Chapters 2 through 5 according to the type of system in
question. The Navy has special uses for shore-to-ship steam. The Naval Sea Systems
Command (NAVSEASYSCOM) shore-to-ship steam purity standards are described in
Chapter 3. Examples of industrial water systems and their uses are:
Steam Boiler Systems. (See Chapter 3.) Steam uses include space and
hot water heating, sterilization, humidification, indirect food processing,
and power generation.
Cooling Water Systems. (See Chapter 4.) Cooling water is used in
cooling towers, evaporative coolers, evaporative condensers, and once-
through systems. Applications are broad, ranging from simple refrigeration
to temperature regulation of nuclear reactors.
Closed Water Systems. (See Chapter 5.) These include closed hot water,
closed chilled water, and diesel jacket systems.
Fire Protection and Other Uses. Fire protection water systems are not
technically industrial water systems. These include building fire suppression sprinkler
systems and firemain systems at waterfronts. The need to chemically treat the water
within such systems is recognized; however, there are currently no industrial standards
in place. The firemain systems at waterfronts often use salt water or brackish water.
This type of water can also be used for once-through condenser cooling.
Problems Encountered in Industrial Water Systems. Problems found in
industrial water systems are attributable to reduced or restricted water flow or other
changes in operational parameters, and often caused by corrosion, deposits, and
biological growth. These problems result in reduced system efficiency (higher operating
costs), increased equipment replacement costs, and reduced safety. At times they can
be serious enough to cause complete system shutdown. The problems in industrial
water systems fall into three main categories: