b. Waste and Source Data. The most important
information in managing a solid waste system
Adverse climate can severely limit the capability of
landfill facility is the quantity, type, and source of
a sanitary landfill, but this can be partially overcome
waste being collected for disposal. Truck scales are
by planning and modified operational procedures.
employed to determine the quantity of waste from
a. Cold Weather. Extremely cold weather can
each source. The type of wastes can be determined
greatly reduce the biological activity in a sanitary
from recycling programs. To assist in recycling,
landfill. It is reported that in areas where winter
waste from each truck visually classified into the
temperatures are less than - 30 degrees F, only
minimal waste stabilization occurs. A serious prob-
lem in cold regions is frozen soil. This can be
overcome to some extent by excavating for the fill
during the summer season and stockpiling cover
(4) Textile products.
b. Warm Weather. Extremely warm weather
(6) Ferrous metals.
may affect workers but has no adverse impact on
landfill operations. However, as discussed previ-
(8) Sand and gravel.
ously, hot weather will affect the installation of the
liner. For most landfills, installation of a new liner
(10) Food wastes.
and extension of existing liners over new cells
should be scheduled during the spring and fall
(12) Other wastes.
seasons. Seaming during hot mid-day periods
c. Computerized Systems.
should be avoided.
(1) A simple, cost effective automated system
c. Wet Weather. The major problem during wet
for recording waste quantities consists of a personal
weather is maintaining maneuverability of vehicles
computer (PC) and truck scales equipped with
and equipment used to handle the solid waste. This
digital read-out. Due to the current emphasis on
can be prevented in design by selecting a site that is
computerized systems, most digital truck scales can
well drained and has soil that provides for adequate
be connected to computers using readily available
vehicle handling when wet. Modifying operational
hardware. Manufacturers of truck scales and
practices can also reduce this problem. Surface
computer vendors can provide the necessary hard-
drainage can usually be diverted away from open
ware and software packages.
(2) Computer programs for landfill management
d. Dry Weather. Dry weather problems in a
are available commercially from truck scale
sanitary landfill are operational in nature, such as
manufacturers and independent software compa-
working under adverse conditions created by blow-
nies. Such commercial programs must be modified
to accommodate the needs of each specific user.
ing dust, paper and debris. A certain amount of
The advantage of using commercially available
moisture is needed for biological activity to take
programs is that they have been developed by
place in the landfill. However, it is unusual to have
experienced programmers who have a good under-
to add water for this purpose. Control of blowing
standing of landfill operation. Unfortunately, these
refuse can be accomplished by promptly covering
companies may not be located conveniently to
waste materials, and by erecting portable fences
many users, thus causing delays in making adjust-
downwind of the open trench.
ments and corrections. The ideal situation is to have
local programs developed, thus allowing quicker
4-7. Operating Records and Controls.
d. Trench Data. To provide data for projecting
maintained to determine historical operating costs,
the life of a landfill, trenches should be surveyed
which can be used to project future needs. Good
and a reference point at one end of each trench.
Periodically, the distance from the reference point
records are invaluable in developing general landfill
to the toe and top of the working slopes should be
design procedures in that capacity requirements and
recorded. From these measurements, in-place vol-
operating parameters can be analyzed and
umes of landfilled wastes can be calculated. If
compared with other systems. Designers must also
operation of the landfill is consistent, it can be a
determine how data will be collected and provide
monthly procedure with minimum impact on other
the necessary equipment for doing so.