(10) Operating procedures.
a. Proper design is vital to the successful opera-
tion of a landfill disposal facility in even the most
3-2. Health and Safety.
suitable location. All technological alternatives
The design will produce a sanitary landfill which
which meet requirements of the proposed landfill
does not threaten the health and safety of nearby
should be reviewed prior to incorporation into the
inhabitants, and which in general precludes the
design. The design should produce a landfill capa-
ble of accepting given solid waste materials for
of surface and ground-waters from
disposal. To serve as a basis for design, the types
landfill generated leachate.
and quantities of all refuse expected to be disposed
of at the landfill should be determined by survey
c. Infestation by rats, flies or other vermin.
d. Other nuisance factors such as odors and
b. In accordance with 40 CFR 241, site develop-
ment plans should include:
(1) Initial and final topographic maps at contour
f. Explosive hazards from methane gas gener-
intervals of 5 feet or less.
ated within the landfill.
(2) Land use and zoning within one quarter of
3-3. Volume Minimization.
a mile of the site, and airports that could be affected
by birds near the landfill. Land use drawings should
Reducing the need for a landfill should be a priority
for all installations. The type and extent of
include housing and other buildings, water wells,
compaction should be considered in design to
water courses, rock outcroppings, roads, and soil
reduce landfill volume. Recycling and other meth-
or rock borings.
ods of reducing landfill volume are discussed else-
(3) Utilities within 500 feet of the site.
where in this manual.
(4) Buildings and facilities associated with the
3-4. Site Layout.
The configuration of the landfill, supporting build-
(6) Provisions for surface water runoff control.
ings, and access roads should be to facilitate
(7) Leachate collection and treatment or dis-
effective stormwater drainage, erosion control, lea-
chate collection, and operation at a minimum cost.
(8) Gas collection control and disposal system.
The layout should make optimum use of the
(9) Final cover system.
existing terrain to minimize excavation and con-
(10) Liner system.
struction costs. Supporting buildings should be near
c. Plans should be accompanied by a narrative
the landfill. If the waste is to be weighed, a truck
and drawings which describe:
scale should be adjacent to the access road and
(1) Planned or projected use of the completed
situated where all vehicles entering and exiting the
landfill must pass directly in front of the scale. A
(2) Programs to monitor and control gases and
typical site layout is shown in figure 3-1.
3-5. Trench Design.
(3) Current and projected use of water re-
a. Capacity. Commonly 1,000 to 1,200 pounds
(4) Elevation, movement, and initial quality of
of refuse requires 1 cubic yard of landfill volume.
Under ideal conditions compaction rates of 1,800
(5) Groundwater testing program.
pounds of refuse per cubic yard and higher have
(6) Description of soil and other geologic mate-
been achieved. Volume requirements for a new
rials to a depth sufficient to determine the degree of
landfill should be determined by assessing opera-
ground-water protection provided naturally.
tions at the landfill being closed or replaced. In the
(7) Potential for leachate generation.
absence of existing data, the capacity will be based
(8) Vector controls.
on 1,000 pounds of refuse per cubic yard of landfill
(9) Litter control program.