TM 5-814-3/AFM 88-11, Volume III
c. State regulations. Most states require a minimum of secondary treatment for all domestic wastewaters.
In critical areas, various types of advanced wastewater treatment processes for the removal of phosphorus
and nitrogen will be imposed by the State regulatory agencies to protect their water resources. The designer
must review the applicable State water quality standards before setting the treatment level or selecting the
d. Local regulations. In general, local governments do not specify requirements for wastewater treatment
facilities per se. Construction of wastewater facilities must conform to applicable zoning and Occupational
and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements, and to AR 200-1 for Army projects and AFM 88-15 for
Air Force projects.
3-2. Preliminary treatment.
Preliminary treatment is defined as any physical or chemical process at the wastewater treatment plant that
precedes primary treatment. Its function is mainly to protect subsequent treatment units and to minimize
operational problems. Pretreatment at the source to render a wastewater acceptable at the domestic
wastewater treatment facility is not included.
3-3. Primary treatment.
Primary treatment is defined as physical or, at times, chemical treatment for the removal of settleable and
3-4. Secondary treatment.
Secondary wastewater treatment is defined as processes which use biological and, at times, chemical treat-
ment to accomplish substantial removal of dissolved organics and colloidal materials. Land treatment can be
classified as secondary treatment only for isolated locations with restricted access and when limited to crops
which are not for direct human consumption. For the legal definition of secondary treatment, see the glossary.
Advanced wastewater treatment.
a. Definition. Advanced wastewater treatment is defined as that required to achieve pollutant reductions
by methods other than those used in conventional treatment (sedimentation, activated sludge, trickling filter,
etc.). Advanced treatment employs a number of different unit operations, including ponds, post-aeration,
microstraining, filtration, carbon adsorption, membrane solids separation, and specific treatment processes
such as phosphorus and nitrogen removal.
b. Efficiency. Advanced wastewater treatment is capable of very high effectiveness and is used when
necessary to meet strict efluent standards. Organics and suspended solids removal of over 90 percent is
obtainable using various combinations of conventional and advanced wastewater treatment processes.
Phosphorus levels of less than 1 milligram per liter and total nitrogen levels of 5.0 milligrams per liter or less
can also be reached through advanced treatment (chap 13).
3-6. Evaluation of wastewater treatment processes.
Table 3-2 provides a summary evaluation of wastewater treatment processes. Tables 3-3 and 3-4 illustrate
the applicable processes and their possible performance. All of the above will be used for guidance in
selecting a process chain of treatment units and in conjunction with TM 5-814-8, which applies directly to
the selection of treatment processes.