1 October 1997
(2) The second is a refinement of environmental criteria and analytical work,
principally site selection (Procurement Planning phase).
(3) The third may be an assessment or a full Environmental Impact Statement which
is system-specific and occurs after selection of a system or completion of preliminary design
b. In areas of air quality non-attainment, additional monitoring may be required to be
completed prior to design and construction of the facility. This action may be initiated early
and may continue throughout a large part of each phase. The Model is more concerned with
the position in the process of the completion and in some cases may leave the decision about
when to commence this work up to local requirements an customs. Use of the Model should
allow careful and timely consideration of all environmental restrictions which have typically
impacted resource recovery projects.
A-9. WASTE REDUCTION.
a. Waste reduction generally refers to reducing the quantity of solid waste generated so
that there is simply less waste for disposal in landfills, for resource recovery, or for source
separation. The reuse and recycling of beverage containers is an example of waste reduction
because fewer containers enter the municipal waste streams.
b. While the model is used independently of waste reduction, the two are compatible.
The only adjustment needed in the resource recovery planning process is a revision of the
estimates of solid waste quantity and composition that will be available to the resource
recovery system after all reasonably foreseeable waste reduction systems are in place. The
Model does not detail a method for introducing waste reduction programs, but recognizes their
potential and allows ample opportunity for a project manager to factor waste reduction into the
overall resource recovery management plan.
A-10. SOURCE SEPARATION. Source separation is defined as the setting aside of
recyclable waste materials at their point of generation for segregated collection, transport, and
delivery to specialized waste processing sites or final manufacturing markets.
a. The Model encourages and promotes the pursuit of a separation program, either
independently or in conjunction with a larger-scale program. Analysis of a source separation
program is placed early in the consideration of solid waste resource recovery processes. In
some cases, source separation may be the only viable recovery program available to a locality.
b. The Model indicates that source separation is carried out independently, but at
specific points is factored into the Master Network because the municipal decision process
may occur on both systems at the same time.
A-11. PHASE-OVER PLANNING. Most resource recovery projects represent long-term
solutions to solid waste disposal for communities. One must, however, count on substantial
time to elapse between the initiation of resource recovery planning and the actual
commencement of resource recovery plant operations. The transition from the existing solid
waste management system to the initiation of the long-term resource recovery program is the