1 October 1997
POLLUTION CONTROL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERMITTING
5-1. POLLUTION CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS. The major problem with the public's
acceptance of waste incineration has been the issue of pollution. As a result of increased
apprehension, the waste incineration industry has one of the most stringent sets of air emissions
and residue disposal regulations of all industries.
a. Comparative Efficiencies. Figure 5-1 shows the comparative efficiencies of the various
types of particulate removal technologies in use. As regulations become more stringent, designers
are required to use more sophisticated systems for achieving 80-90% removal of acids formed,
higher efficiency removal of particulates, and the associated removal of any chemicals that may
adhere to the particulates.
b. Current Regulations.
(1) The most recent regulations use the Best Available Control Technology (BACT, see
section 5-3) to establish the minimum performance limits.
(a) The most recent of these regulations is the revised Clean Air Act, 40CFR
Parts 51, 52, and 60 dated July 1, 1996. The regulations continue to be revised, requiring the
designer to keep up to date with the latest revisions and their application to the facility proposed.
(b) The current regulations apply to municipal waste combustors (MWC's) with a
capacity greater than 250 tpd. Comparable regulations appropriate to smaller facilities will be
issued, and the planning of any new facility for the incineration of municipal-type waste must
provide for pollution control equipment.
(c) Additional considerations for required permits are discussed in appendix C.
(2) Many states also require continuous emission monitoring equipment for the pollutants of
concern. It is imperative that the project planning effort determine all applicable federal, state and
local regulations for the new facility.
5-2. POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT. The devices discussed in the following paragraphs
are schematically illustrated in figure 5-2. Many of these devices are covered in their respective
military design manuals and procurement guide specifications.
(1) A particle separation cyclone is a common and inexpensive device for control of large
particulates. It has a conical shape and imparts a swirling action to the gases to remove the
particulates. The cleaned gas is extracted from the center of the vortex and the ash falls out of the
bottom of the cone.