which are used for the injection of wastes. Permit
--Establishing the Office of Solid Waste
holders' will be responsible for maintaining injec-
within the U.S. EPA.
tion wells in such a manner to prevent the
Requiring the development of hazardous
waste management regulations.
--Establishing minimum requirements for
f. Other pertinent federal legislation.
(1) The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
State or regional solid waste plans by
providing technical and/or financial assis-
of 1976 requires control of chemicals which have
a known adverse effect on human health. Some
tance for developing environmentally safe
provisions of this Act relate specifically to the
disposal methods which also maximize
handling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB'S).
the utilization and conservation of valu-
(2) Pesticides are specifically regulated under
provisions of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,
Developing criteria for sanitary landfills,
and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) as amended by the
especially with respect to characteristics
Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act
distinguishing sanitary landfills from
(FEPCA) of 1972 and the FIFRA Amendments of
open dumps and, consequently, provi-
1975. This Act is important in that it requires
sions for the prevention of open dumping.
registration of all new pesticide products and
Establishing resource and recovery panels
provides for Federal control over the use of
to provide technical assistance to State
and local governments.
(3) The Marine Protection, Research and
(2) Manifesting disposal. Perhaps the single
Sanctuaries Act of 1972 regulates the transporta-
most important feature of RCRA is the establish-
tion for dumping and the dumping of material
ment of a "manifest system" regulating the
into ocean waters. This would prohibit transport-
handling of hazardous wastes which incorporates
ing wastewater or wastewater treatment sludge
a "cradle-to-grave" concept. Generators of hazard-
to the open seas for dumping without a permit.
ous wastes will be required to initiate documenta-
(4) The Comprehensive Environmental Re-
tion regarding the transport, handling, and dis-
sponse, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980
posal of these wastes. Permits will be required in
establishes responsibility and penalties for dis-
each step of the handling and disposal processes
charge or release of hazardous substances into
and records will be kept by the waste generator
the environment. This includes release into a
identifying all persons who have responsibility for
body of water or onto land.
transportation and disposal of a particular waste.
e. Safe Drinking Water Act (SD WA) of 1974.
4-3. The NPDES Permit System
The Safe Drinking Water Act required the estab-
lishment of national standards for all public water
a. Legislative authorization. The Environmental
Protection Agency was authorized under Section
(1) The National Interim Primary Drinking
402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to
Water Standards were established for contami-
establish a national permit program to control the
nants known to have adverse effects on human
discharge of pollutants into the nation's water-
health. Compliance with the maximum contami-
ways. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimina-
nant levels (M CL) which comprised the primary
tion System (NPDES) is the primary mechanism
standards is compulsory and enforceable by
for the Federal enforcement of effluent limitations
States having approved programs or by the U.S.
and State water quality standards. According to
EPA. Secondary standards will be established to
NPDES regulations, discharges into navigable
regulate parameters such as color and odor with
waters from all point sources of pollution includ-
recommendations being made as guidelines to
ing industrial discharges, the effluent from munic-
states for the further protection of public welfare.
ipal treatment plants, and large agricultural feed
(2) The major impact of the Safe Drinking
lots must have an NPDES permit to lawfully
Water Act on waste management is the inclusion
discharge wastewaters. Industrial discharges to
o f restrictions on underground injection of
municipal treatment systems are not required to
wastes. All aquifers or portions of aquifers cur-
have NPDES permits; however, such dischargers
are required to meet certain pretreatment stan-
dards as discussed later in this chapter. Although
designated for protection under these regulations.
a Federal program, it is the intent of the program
In addition, any other aquifer which is capable of
that the authority and responsibility be delegated
yielding water containing 10,000 mg/L or less of
to each State, when the States enact legislation
total dissolved solids also comes under these
and provide adequate staff to enforce the system.
regulations. Permits will be required for all wells