among military installations. This is due to differ-
and distemper, to name only a few. The viruses of
ences in installation size and the type of site
most concern found in wastewaters are of the
operations. Sources of industrial discharge com-
Hepatitis, Coxsackie, Echo, Adeno and Arbo
mon to many military posts are discussed below.
(1) Water treatment. Water treatment plants
(e) Parasites and protozoa are widely found
in sanitary wastewaters of the United States.
filtration, carbon adsorption and chlorination as
Few of these organisms directly cause death but
purifying operations. Sludges produced from the
some do weaken the host and promote the
possibility of contracting infectious disease. Table
of minerals such as calcium, iron, and aluminum.
3-2 lists the protozoans and multicellular para-
These sludges vary in solids content from 2
sites (nematodes and cestodes) of major concern.
percent to 25 percent and are most often handled
3-3. Sources of industrial and sanitary
in one of three manners:
discharge to a municipal sewage treat-
a. Industrial waste waters. Industrial wastewat-
discharge to an industrial waste treat-
ers may be defined as all wastewaters other than
those resulting from sanitary discharge or storm
dewater and landfill.
runoff. Industrial discharges include source from
(2) Boiler water treatment blowdown. Boiler
water treatment operations, vehicle wash racks,
blowdown is required to control suspended and
metal plating, motorpool and equipment mainte-
dissolved solids concentration. Boiler water is
nance shops, hospitals, laundries, x-ray and pho-
treated with chemicals, notably sodium and phos-
tographic and chemical laboratory operations. Dis-
phate, to prevent scaling and corrosion. Boiler
charges classified as industrial wastes often con-
blowdown is typically high in pH, temperature,
tain significant quantities of oils, soluble organic
suspended and dissolved solids, and water treat-
compounds, solid matter, dissolved metals, and
other substances. Industrial wastes often require
(3) Cooling water. Cooling water originates
treatment operations not normally employed for
from air conditioning systems and cooling towers.
domestic wastes are quite different from domestic
wastes. This section of the manual discusses
through water which is not recovered or reused.
sources of sanitary and industrial wastewaters.
Occasionally, air conditioning cooling water is
b. Sanitary discharges. Sanitary discharges
treated with biocides to prevent slime growth in
originate from the use of restrooms, food prepara-
the plumbing and the condenser heat exchangers.
tion, clothes washing, and other domestic sources.
Cooling towers are used to cool process waters
When these activities are conducted on a large
and vessels, and allow reuse of utility water.
scale, they become an industrial source. Sanitary
Cooling towers are treated with organic and
or domestic wastewater is commonly referred to
inorganic biocides to control slime growth in the
as sewage. Table 3-3 summarizes average sani-
tary discharge loadings and sources from a typi-
discharges may occur when the heat exchangers
cal domestic household of four members. Table
leak process chemicals into the cooling water. In
3-4 summarizes typical sewage volume and BOD
general, however, non-contact cooling water is
for various services.
very low in chemical strength.
(4) Aircraft and vehicle wash racks.
Table 3-3. Average pollutant loading and waste water
(a) Nearly all military installations have
volume from domestic household (four members) (100)
vehicle wash racks to clean vehicles returning
from field exercise and for normal maintenance.
Number Volume Water BOD, in Solids, in
Per Use in Use in Pounds Pounds
The wash waters contain grit, soil, oil and deter-
Gallons Gallons Per Day Per Day
(b) Centralized Vehicle Wash Facility
(CVWF) are being constructed at Army facilities
which are complete recycle systems with no
discharge to wastewater facilities.
(5) Motor pools.
(a) Motor pools have a variety of waste
c. Industrial discharges. Industrial wastewaters
sources. These include: engine cleaning, spilled
hydraulic engine and transmission oils, battery