Undesirable characteristics and effects of wastewater
discharges and remedial approaches
Undesirable Characteristics and
Depletion of dissolved oxygen in
streams leading in severe cases to fish
kills; development of anaerobic condi-
tions; evolution of malodorous gases
and an unsightly environment.
charge within assimilative capacity of
water body or by effluent standards.
Adverse effects on squat i c life;
accumulation of toxic materials and
transfer to man via food chains; intro-
duction of toxic materials to domestic
water supply systems.
limitation imposed on discharge of
Color and Turbidity
increased loads on water treatment
Persist in the environment for long
periods; may cause aesthetic (e.g.,
foam) or public health (e.g., chlori-
nated hydrocarbons) problems.
Aesthetically undesirable; may inter-
Oil and Floating
fere with natural stream reaeration.
Regulations usually require complete
Enhance eutrophication (i.e., blooms
of algae in lakes and ponded areas);
critical in recreational areas.
Create sludge deposits in streams
resulting in malodorous and anaerobic
Discharge limits are
imposed by regulatory agencies.
Acids and Alkali
Shift the acid-base equilibria in
adversely affect water quality for
domestic, industrial, and navigational
Most regulatory codes require
tion of dissolved oxygen; thermal
barriers restrict movement of aquatic
organisms and cause a shift in biotic
Increases the salinity of receiving
fresh water i.e., brackish water;
impairs reuse for water supplies.