SYMBOLS

DEFINITIONS

a

Speed of shock wave (ft/sec)

H

Static head (ft)

L

Length of watermain (pipe) (ft)

V

Normal velocity in pipe (ft/sec)

)H

Surge head rise (ft)

)V

Change in water velocity (ft/sec)

g

)H + H

Total head of surge wave (surge head + static

head)

N

Number of critical intervals (N + 1 for

instantaneous closure)

NOTE:

H is for head

t is for time

V is velocity of flow

x is distance

a is acoustic velocity

F and f are functions representing the direct wave reflected wave

respectively

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