TM 5-813-3/AFM 88-10, Vol 3
WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS
b. State agencies have established design guidelines
3-1. General design criteria.
based on local conditions and experiences. Information
a. Water treatment plants. Water treatment plants
regarding these guidelines is available from the divi-
at military installations must produce high quality wa-
sion of engineering within the state agency responsible
ter sufficient in quantity for all intended purposes. If
for environmental protection. Consultation with State
the water is to be used for human consumption, it
engineers will provide valuable information relative to
must be free at all times of organisms or substances
plant design and water treatment experience in the
posing health hazards, and also essentially free of ma-
State or region. It is also advisable to confer with man-
terials that would make it esthetically unsatisfactory
agement and operating personnel of nearby water sup-
to the consumers. The overall water quality objective
can be met if the water delivered to service meets the
drinking water standards given in appendix A.
b. Water storage and distribution. The quality of
a. Unless the treatment plant can be taken out of
water obtained at the user's tap is not determined sole-
service for a period of time for maintenance and repair
ly by water treatment operations. Raw water quality
work, two or more of all essential items, such as
and conditions in treated water storage and water dis-
pumps, settling basins, flocculators, filters, and chemi-
tribution systems also affect the quality of the water.
cal feeders must be provided. The degree of impor-
Consequently, protection of raw water quality and fin-
tance of each item must be evaluated on a case-by-case
ished water storage and delivery systems to the maxi-
basis, considering that safe water has to be supplied at
mum practicable extent is essential. Excellence in wa-
ter treatment is partially nullified unless other water
b. If there is a definite possibility that lengthy pow-
system components are adequately designed, main-
er outages will occur, installation of emergency gener-
tained and operated.
ating facilities at the water treatment plant should be
3-2. Plant siting.
contemplated. Likewise, if the delivery of crucial
chemical supplies is uncertain, larger than normal
The following items will be considered in choosing a
stores of these chemicals must be kept on hand, which
would necessitate larger than normal chemical storage
Proximity to the source of raw water.
Proximity to the area to be served.
To simplif y plant operations, the following guidelines
Geology and topography of the site.
should be observed during the design stage.
Availability of transportation facilities.
a. Unnecessary equipment and operations should be
Size of the site, both for original and for antici-
b. Operations requiring frequent attention from
h. Legal obligations or restrictions.
plant operators should be located reasonably close to-
i. Environmental effects.
gether. The most attention is generally required for
3-3. process selection and design.
operation of filters, flocculators, and chemical feeding
a. The selection and design of the water treatment
c. Chemical handling and feeding should also be
processes to be used at a particular facility are dictated
by practicability, reliability, flexibility, and overall
simplified as much as possible. Unloading and storage
economics. Engineers experienced in water treatment
areas for chemicals should be easily maintained and
plant design are needed to determine the best treat-
readily accessible and be close to the point of applica-
tion of chemicals.
ment system for any particular situation, and their ad-
d. Plants treating river water must be arranged to
vice should be obtained in early stages of project plan-
provide the flexibility of treatment needed to cope
ning. Detailed information about major treatment
processes is given in chapter 2,
with raw water quality changes.