Water Quality. The chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water with
respect to its suitability for a particular purpose. The same water may be of good
quality for one purpose or use, and bad for another, depending on its characteristics
and the requirements for the particular use.
Watershed. (1) The area contained within a divide above a specified point on a
stream. In water supply engineering, it is called a watershed or a catchment area.
Water Supply. In general, the sources of water for public or private uses.
Water Table. The upper surface of a zone of saturation (in groundwater) where the
aquifer is not confined by an overlying impermeable formation.
Weir. An obstruction placed across a stream or other flowing water so as to cause the
water to pass through an opening or notch, thus allowing the quantity of water to be
Well. An artificial excavation that derives water from the interstices of the rocks or soil
which it penetrates.
Well, Artesian. A well tapping a confined or artesian aquifer in which the static water
level stands above the bottom of the confining bed and the top of the aquifer. The term
is used to include all wells tapping such basins or aquifers. Those in which the head is
insufficient to raise the water to or above the land surface are call subartesian wells.
Well, Bored. A well that is excavated by means of an auger (hand or power) as
distinguished from one which is dug or drilled.
Well Casing. Metal pipe used to line the borehole of a well.
Well, Drilled. A well that is excavated wholly or in part by means of a drill (either
percussion or rotary) which operates by cutting or by abrasion; the materials are
brought to the surface by means of a bailer, sand pump hollow drill tool, or by a
hydraulic or self-cleaning method.
Well, Driven. A well that is constructed by driving a casing, at the end of which there is
a drive point, without the use of any drilling, boring, or jetting device.
Well, Dug. A well that is excavated by means of picks, shovels, or other hand tools, or
by means of a power shovel or other dredging or trenching machinery, as distinguished
from one put down by a drill or auger.
Well Field. A tract of land containing a number of wells.