Boom. A floating structure, usually of timber or logs, used to protect the face of a dam
or other structure from damage by wave action, by floating material being dashed
against it by the waves, or to defect floating material away from such a structure.
Brackish Water. Water rendered unfit for drinking because of salty or unpleasant
tastes caused by the presence of excessive amounts of dissolved chemicals, chlorides,
Capillarity. The degree to which a material or object containing minute openings or
passages, when immersed in a liquid, will draw the surface of the liquid above the
Cathodic Protection. Reduction or elimination of corrosion by making the metal a
cathode by means of an impressed direct current (DC) or attachment to a sacrificial
anode (usually Mg, Al, or Zn).
Centigrade. Pertaining to the Centigrade thermometer scale; water freezes as 0C,
and boils at 100C.
Centrifugal. Moving or directed outward from the center.
Chemical Feeder. A device for feeding chemicals to water at a know, controlled rate.
Chloramines. Compounds of organic amines or ammonia with chlorine.
Chlorination. Treatment of water the addition of chlorine either as a gas or liquid, or in
the form of hypochlorite, usually for the purpose of disinfection, oxidation, etc.
Chlorination, Breakpoint. The application of chlorine to water containing free ammonia
to provide a free available chlorine residual.
Chlorination, Post-. The application of chlorine to water subsequent to any treatment.
The term refers only to the point of application.
Chlorination, Pre-. The application of chlorine to water prior to any treatment.
Chlorinator. A device to apply chlorine to water at a known, controlled rate.
Chlorine, Combined, Available Residual. That portion of the total residual chlorine
remaining in water at the end of a specified contact period, which will react chemically
and biologically as chloramines, or organic chloramines.
Chlorine Demand. The difference between the amount of chlorine added to water and
the amount of residual chlorine remaining at the end of a specified contact period.