Laboratory Control Tests. The main control tests involved in sludge
handling and disposal are the solids tests (total solids and suspended solids) used to
determine the effectiveness of dewatering processes. Some recycling processes
require testing for hazardous materials. Ocean disposal may require bioassay testing
to determine the effect on the aquatic environment.
Maintaining Records. The dewatering and ultimate disposal of water
plant sludges and other residues can often be expensive. To manage water treatment
plant residues adequately, maintain records on residue quantities and characteristics,
chemical quantities used for residue treatment processes, results of laboratory control
tests, and operating notes.
Desalination. Some geographic locations, including coastal areas,
islands, and some inland regions, have little or no fresh water even though unlimited
supplies of saline water are available.
When it is necessary to establish and maintain military installations in
such areas, the water supply is generally derived by converting saline water into fresh
water. Several methods are available, but they are all quite expensive and complicated
to use. These methods include distillation, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and reverse
osmosis. Other methods (such as freezing, hydrate formations, solvent extractions,
and solar evaporation) are not considered practical desalination methods.
For more information on desalination, see par. 2.2.64.
Water Sampling and Analysis. Sampling and analysis for plant quality
control differs from testing conducted to monitor compliance with the SDWA. Process
tests are generally conducted by treatment plant personnel, are used to enhance and
control plant performance, and are not required by law. Applicable process control
tests for each unit process are detailed in pars. 5.4.1 through 5.4.13. Compliance
monitoring is covered in par. 3.7. Additional information on sampling and analysis can
be found in pars. 2.1.2 and 2.2.62.