(2) Pressure on Walls of Shafts in Stiff Clay. On shafts located in
stiff, intact, or fissured swelling clays, initially the pressure on the
shaft lining is very small. Over a period of time, the pressure may
increase to several times the overburden pressure (i.e., ultimately to the
swelling pressure if shaft lining is sufficiently rigid). Local experience
in that soil or field measurements can provide useful information. For
further details of pressures on shafts, see Reference 23.
NUMERICAL STRESS ANALYSIS
Stress analysis using numerical methods and computers are available for many
simple as well as more complex loading conditions. See DM-7.3, Chapter 3 on
available computer programs.