TM 5-818-1 / AFM 88-3, Chap. 7
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
AVERAGE ADFREEZE STRESS vs TIME
Figure 18-5. Heave force tests, average tangential adfreeze bond stress versus time, and timber and steel pipe piles
placed with silt-water slurry in dry excavated holes. Piles were installed within annual frost zone only, over permafrost, to
depths from ground surface of 3.6 to 6.5 feet.