TM 541-1I / AFM 883. Chap. 7
Purpose. This manual presents guidance for
selecting and designing foundations and associated
investigations. The report should contain sufficient
features for buildings, retaining structures, and
description of field and laboratory investigation, sub-
machinery. Foundations for hydraulic structures are not
surface conditions, typical test data, basic assumptions,
included. Foundation design differs considerably from
and analytical procedures to permit detailed re- view of
design of other elements of a structure because of the
the conclusions, recommendations, and final design. The
interaction between the structure and the supporting
amount and type of information to be presented shall be
medium (soil and/or rock).
consistent with the scope of the investigation. For some
structures, a cursory review of foundation conditions may
Scope. Information contained herein is directed
be adequate. For major structures, the following outline
toward construction usually undertaken on military
shall be used as a guide:
a. A general description of the site, indicating
reservations, although it is sufficiently general to permit
its use on a wide variety of construction projects.
principal topographic features in the vicinity. A plan map
a. This manual includes-
that shows the surface contours, the location of the
(1) A brief summary of fundamental
proposed structure, and the location of all borings should
volumetric - gravimetric relationships.
b. A description of the general and local
(2) Summaries of physical and engineering
properties of soil and rock.
geology of the site, including the results of the geological
(3) General descriptions of field and
c. The results of field investigations, including
laboratory investigations useful for foundation selection
graphic logs of all foundation and borrow borings,
(4) Design procedures for construction
locations of and pertinent data from piezometers, and a
aspects, such as excavated slopes and shoring.
general description of subsurface materials, based on the
(5) Empirical design equations and
borings. The information shall be presented in
simplified methods of analysis, including design charts,
accordance with Government standards. The boring logs
soil property-index correlations, and tabulated data.
should indicate how the borings were made, type of
(6) Selected design examples to illustrate
sampler used, split-spoon penetration resistance, and
use of the analytical methods.
other field measurement data.
b. Since the user is assumed to have some
d. Groundwater conditions, including data on
familiarity with geotechnical engineering, design equa-
seasonal variations in groundwater level and results of
tions and procedures are presented with a minimum of
field pumping tests, if performed.
theoretical background and no derivations. The topics of
e. A general description of laboratory tests
performed, range of test values, and detailed test data on
and foundations on expansive soils are covered in
representative samples. Atterberg limits should be
greater depth in separate technical manuals and are only
plotted on a plasticity chart, and typical grain-size curves
treated briefly in this manual.
on a grain-size distribution plot. Laboratory test data
should be summarized in tables and figures as
appropriate. If laboratory tests were not performed, the
Objectives of foundation investigations. The
basis for determining soil or rock properties should be
objectives of foundation investigations are to determine
presented, such as correlations or reference to pertinent
the stratigraphy and nature of subsurface materials and
their expected behavior under structure loadings and to
A generalized geologic profile used for
permit savings in design and construction costs. The
design, showing properties of subsurface materials and
investigation is expected to re- veal adverse subsurface
design values of shear strength for each critical stratum.
conditions that could lead to construction difficulties,
The profile may be described or shown graphically.
excessive maintenance, or possible failure of the
structure. The scope of investigations depends on the
nature and complexity of sub-surface materials and the
size, requirements for, and cost of the structure.