01 July 1997
redriving should not begin until all heave had occurred. The penetration resistance required to redrive the
piles to the embedment elevation should be recorded and, any significant change in the penetration
(2) Adjacent Structures. Increases in surface elevation exceeding 0.5 inch may cause damage to
adjacent structures. Therefore, the effect of ground heave from pile installation should be observed on
(a) The increase in the surface elevation from ground heave should be measured and
(b) Ground heave near adjacent structures should be controlled if this heave exceeds 0.5 inch.
Methods of controlling ground heave include pre-excavation, increasing pile spacing, or by installation of
small displacement piles.
d. Problems with the Environment. All environmental requirements will be fully addressed prior to
construction and necessary approvals fully documented.
(1) Vibrations and Noise. Pile driving operations produce considerable noise that may adversely
influence the well-being of inhabitants of the area.
(a) Vibrations can damage nearby structures. Structures adjacent to the construction will be
monitored to assess their integrity prior to and during construction. Assessment of the integrity of adjacent
structures is required prior to construction to determine the initial status of the structures.
(b) Noise can interfere with the quality of life and cause hearing loss to people. High noise
levels that are part of an impact hammer pile driving operation can and frequently do prevent installation of
driven piles where people can be adversely affected. People within range of damaging noise levels will be
protected with safety measures. Vibratory drivers produce much lower noise levels than impact hammers
and should be used where noise can be harmful.
(2) Hazardous Materials and Gases. Some construction sites may be located in areas that had
been used for landfills, storage depots, or contain natural gases.
(a) The environmental requirements for the site must have been fully addressed prior to
construction. Therefore, this is a complication that is not expected, and this situation should not occur. This
is an important reason for thorough exploration prior to construction.
(b) If hazardous materials or gases are suspected during pile installation, then the construction
activity will be delayed until an environmental assessment can be completed to check this complication.
Hazardous materials or gases can become evident when piles are extracted or when the soil collected in
hollow open-end piles during driving is excavated.
(3) Groundwater. The exploration program is expected to determine the elevation of the phreatic
surface and any evidence of artesian and perched water.
4-5. PERMAFROST AREAS. Frozen soil often has high strength similar to rock. Installation of piles with
impact hammers or even vibratory drivers may be impractical and alternative installation methods are
a. Site Preparation. The site should be prepared to promote equipment mobility and access at a
later time in case other work is necessary.