01 July 1997
(b) The quick load test described as an option in ASTM D 1143 is recommended for most
applications but may not provide enough time for some soils or clays to consolidate, thereby underestimating
settlement for these soils.
(c) The cyclic load test option of ASTM D 1143 will indicate the potential for deterioration in
strength with time.
(d) The tension test may be conducted according to ASTM D 3689 to provide information on
piles that must function in tension or tension and compression. Residual stresses may significantly influence
results; therefore, a minimum waiting period of 7 days is required following installation before conducting this
test in cohesionless soil and 14 days in cohesive soil.
(4) Lateral Load Tests. Monotonic and cyclic lateral load tests should be conducted according to
ASTM D 3966. This test is used to verify the stiffness of the pile/soil system. Loads should be carried to
(a) Lateral load tests may be conducted by jacking one pile against another.
(b) Groundwater will influence the lateral load response of the pile and should be the same that
will exist during the life of the structure. Pile head boundary conditions will also influence the pile response.
(c) Sequence of applying loads is important when conducting cyclic tests. The load level for the
cyclic test may be the design load. Alternatively, a deflection criterion may be selected where the pile is
loaded to a predetermined deflection. That load level will then be used for the cyclic load tests. The test
piles are loaded from zero to the load level and repeated for the required number of cycles according to
ASTM D 3966.
2-3. CONSTRUCTION. Successful construction requires a well-written contract, unobstructed access to
the site, efficient production methods, and adequate contractor experience.
a. Contract Specifications. Specifications for pile driving contracts shall be prepared with the
appropriate guide specification for military construction in accordance with ER 1110-345-720. All approval of
National Environmental Policy Act requirements will be documented and in place prior to contract award.
(1) Basic Requirements. Specifications in the contract documents of the pile foundation will be
clearly presented and easily understood. These specifications should be flexible to maximize economy, yet
rigid enough to result in the desired foundation. The Government should be permitted to focus on the
contractor' compliance with specifications and ability of the equipment and methods used by the contractor
to produce structurally sound piles driven within established tolerances and capable of developing the
(a) Contracts should not be awarded when scope/design is not finalized. Careful
consideration of all potential problems and factors affecting contract performance is essential prior to any
contract modification. Unilateral contract actions, especially those that use all available overrun authority,
are not recommended.
(b) Specifications should indicate whether the piles are to be driven to the design penetration
resistance or to a specified bearing stratum.
(c) Specifications should indicate the minimum penetration into the bearing stratum, if the piles
are to be driven to a specified bearing stratum. The specification should also give the resistance to where
(blows/inch) the piles should be driven if they are end bearing piles.
(d) Specifications should indicate the intended function of the piles such as resistance to