25 October 2004
Where are successful examples of LID DoD facilities and programs?
What does a typical LID design look like?
Where can additional guidance be obtained?
This UFC is divided into ten chapters, including this introductory chapter.
Chapter 2 provides a brief summary of issues related to compliance and the review
process for any DoD project. Chapter 3 discusses regulations that apply to water
resource and sustainability concerns for DoD projects, and how implementation of LID
will affect compliance. Chapter 4 compares the ways that LID and conventional
stormwater management approaches utilize hydrologic data and concepts in the design
process. Chapter 5 discusses the goals of an LID design and the principles and
strategies to meet them. Chapter 6 provides an overview of LID devices and the
objectives they are designed to meet. Chapter 7 discusses the relative benefits of LID
and conventional stormwater management practices. Chapter 8 details the appropriate
use, cost, and maintenance issues for the LID devices introduced in Chapter 6.
Chapter 9 provides a detailed outline of the LID planning process. Finally, Chapter 10
offers two examples of LID techniques put into practice, with accompanying
LID SITE DESIGN STRATEGIES. The goal of LID site design is to reduce
the hydrologic impact of development and to incorporate techniques that maintain or
restore the site's hydrologic and hydraulic functions. The optimal LID site design
minimizes runoff volume and preserves existing flow paths. This minimizes
infrastructural requirements. By contrast, in conventional site design, runoff volume and
energy may increase, which results in concentrated flows that require larger and more
extensive stormwater infrastructure.
Generally, site design strategies for any project will address the arrangement
of buildings, roads, parking areas, and other features, and the conveyance of runoff
across the site. LID site design strategies achieve all of the basic objectives of site
design while also minimizing the generation of runoff. Some examples of LID site
design strategies discussed in this UFC include:
Grade to encourage sheet flow and lengthen flow paths.
Maintain natural drainage divides to keep flow paths dispersed.
Disconnect impervious areas such as pavement and roofs from the storm
drain network, allowing runoff to be conveyed over pervious areas instead.
Preserve the naturally vegetated areas and soil types that slow runoff,
filter out pollutants, and facilitate infiltration.
Direct runoff into or across vegetated areas to help filter runoff and