SITE DESIGN GUIDELINES
(d) Need for future expansion of either or
This chapter addresses the treatment of various
(e) Need for passive and active open space
natural and man-made elements when designing a
for the facility.
site. The objective of site design is to place facil-
(3) Setbacks. Setbacks are the distances be-
ities on site with the least disruption to the
tween buildings and property frontages, roadways,
natural environment. Site design emphasizes opti-
parking areas and other buildings. Building set-
mal use of site elements to enhance facilities. Just
backs may be established by the installation de-
as the natural environment is woven from various
sign guide or by historic usage. If building set-
elements, site design interweaves natural and
backs have been established in an area, these
man-made elements to achieve the optimal condi-
setbacks should be observed. Where setbacks are
tion. While demanding a comprehensive knowl-
not established, new buildings should be located in
edge of generally accepted practice, site design
relationship to the surrounding structures. Figure
requires a flexible approach to problem-solving.
4-1 illustrates an implied setback area between
The following factors should be considered in site
two existing structures. A new building should
a. Siting and orienting buildings.
normally conform and align with the front of one
b. Developing vehicular and pedestrian circula-
or other other building. It should not be placed in
front of the foremost structure, behind the rear
grading and drainage.
structure, or in the middle space between the two
d. Responding to climatological conditions.
e. Locating utility systems.
(4) Proximity to Other Facilities. A building's
f. Developing lighting coverage.
relationships to its support facilities and to other
g. Providing for physical security.
primary facilities influence its location. Proximity
to access roads, existing utility lines, and other
4-2. Building Location.
compatible functions (especially if they share facil-
The location of the primary facility is key to a
ities or have interdependent activities) also influ-
successful site design. The building is usually the
ence location. When a building is a shared facility,
most prominent single element and the center of
it should be centrally located and within a reason-
site activity. This does not mean that it belongs in
able distance from all participating users. Build-
the middle of the site. Several factors influence
ings which depend upon a shared facility should
building location. Siting effects a compromise
acknowledge this relationship by orienting either
among the following factors:
the front building face or a doorway area towards
a. Dimensional Factors. The building dimen-
the shared facility.
(5) Buildable Zone. Using the guidelines
sions or footprint, the desired promixity to other
facilities, buffer zones, spacing standards, and
above, a development perimeter can be developed.
setbacks influence building location. These dis-
This perimeter quickly defines a buildable zone as
tances, especially those established for safety pur-
shown in figure 4-2.
b. Environmental Factors. The location and con-
poses, usually must be rigidly maintained.
(1) Buffer Zones. Buffer zones may involve
dition of such elements as geology, soils, drainage
such requirements as screening or absence of
and vegetation may create areas which should be
vertical elements. Buffer zones maintain mandated
excluded from development. This further defines
the buildable zone. Such areas:
(1) Are unbuildable for structural, economic or
(a) Runway clearances.
(b) Noise abatement.
(2) Require protection from construction activ-
(c) Security threats.
(d) Storage of hazardous materials.
(3) Require preservation of their natural in-
(2) Spacing Standards. Spacing between build-
ings is normally determined by their:
c. Orientation. Building location may be influ-
(a) Functional relationships.
enced by orientation for the purpose of energy
(b) Fire separation requirements.
(c) Physical security requirements.