midity. The following locations should be noted for
should be noted. Potential to augment such activi-
their potential impact on site development:
ties as passive recreation and education should be
(a) Where topography collects cool, damp air
noted. Habitat for threatened and endangered
or decreases air flow in depressed areas. This
species will require protection.
affects soil moisture and site humidity.
(9) Archeological and Historic Resources. Ar-
(b) Where slope orientation affects the
cheological and historic resources requiring preser-
amount of solar energy incident on site.
vation and/or protection will be identified. Late
discovery, especially of archeological sites, can
(c) Where vegetative cover causes tempera-
ture reduction, modifies wind velocity and/or pre-
create delays and escalate costs during construc-
vents summer air infiltration.
(10) Visual Conditions. Figure 3-7 shows a
(d) Where natural and man-made surfaces
capture and store heat, increase heat, or cool
visual conditions analysis for the candidate site for
the battalion complex. Aspects of the visual char-
(e) Where climatic pockets of heat, cold,
acter including the following:
frost and fog are created by topography, vegeta-
(a) General geologic, topographic and vege-
tion, and/or walls.
(7) Vegetation. Vegetation can serve many
purposes: climate modification, soil enrichment,
(c) Good and poor site-specific views and
wildlife sustenance, reduction of wind and water
erosion, spatial definition, and creation of a pleas-
(d) Special visual features such as water
ant physical and psychological environment. In
terms of physical security, vegetation can block
e. Site Opportunities and Constraints. The site
sightlines and provide hiding places for aggressors.
opportunities and constraints plan provides an
On the other hand, vegetation can provide natural
overall evaluation of the site. It identifies the
barriers to unwanted approaches. The site will be
principal opportunities and contraints. It should be
examined for both individual species and plant
used to verify a site's adequacy for a proposed
associations. A plant association includes the can-
project. A key requirement for site verification is
opy, understory and ground cover plant material
the determination that current user requirements
which thrive in similar soil and microclimatic
obtained from the program analysis can be accom-
conditions. Plant associations on site or nearby
modated on the selected site. If the site will not
suggest the types of plant material which will do
accommodate the project, the installation will pro-
well when the site is developed. Useful informa-
vide a different site. The opportunities and con-
tion includes location, individual species names,
straints plan addresses both on- and off-site condi-
size, approximate maturity, and general condition.
tions. It summarizes the relationships between
Vegetative masses and individual specimens will
be considered. It should be remembered that
various site elements. It identifies the impacts
younger vegetation may have a greater chance of
that may occur as the result of a change in one or
survival and more potential for long-term impact.
more elements. With this plan, specific environ-
The vegetation's ability to withstand construction
mental objectives for site development, irrespective
activity will be determined. Possible protective
of any proposed activities or facilities, are deter-
measures will be considered. Federally protected
mined. Such objectives may include maintaining
wetlands are usually identified by observation of
existing drainage patterns, restricting facilities to
wetland plant species. Since plants on the Threat-
certain slopes, and augmenting existing vegeta-
ened and Endangered Species List require protec-
tion. When multiple candidate sites are being
tion from disturbance, they will be noted.
analyzed, the opportunities and constraints plans
offer a good basis for comparison. Figure 3-8
(8) Wildlife Habitat. Habitat is not only the
physical area but also the physical environment.
illustrates an opportunities and constraints plan
for the candidate site for the battalion complex.
Species are dependent upon vegetation and water
located within an area for sustenance, cover and
3-4. Site Verification.
shelter. Changes to any element can affect habitat.
Habitat(s) on site will be examined. Territorial or
When a site has been selected in the master plan,
time and budget constraints may not allow for a
migratory areas and the species using them should
be determined. If similar habitat where animals
thorough site analysis. In this instance, several
key issues should be reviewed to verify the site's
may move is located nearby or if these areas are
adequacy for development. Most of these issues
saturated, it should be noted. Potential to preserve
can be recognized and, at least, preliminarily
habitat without impacting human activity on site